Geographic routing in wireless sensor networks for surveillance : introducing a novel routing algorithm: GZOR

Dam, Arjan (2008) Geographic routing in wireless sensor networks for surveillance : introducing a novel routing algorithm: GZOR.

Abstract:Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology is an upcoming field of research throughout the last decade. Thales Nederland B.V. is investigating if this technology is applicable for surveillance purposes, in cooperation with Twente University. In this scenario such a network will have to exist of thousands of positionaware sensor nodes. The nodes must monitor a large area to detect and report incidental hostile intrusions. Intrusion data has to be transmitted to a base station. Therefore the network will be equipped with dozens of gateway nodes, which have a stronger radio and battery and are able to communicate with a base station. The sensor nodes must route the detection data to a gateway by means of a multi hop routing algorithm. Since the nodes need to be position aware for the surveillance purpose, this information can be utilized to increase efficiency and performance of routing algorithms. Geographic routing algorithms form a subclass of WSN routing algorithms. They are developed to deliver reliable anytoany connections between all nodes in an energy efficient and scalable manner. The intended surveillance network does not share these hard requirements. This research has explored the possibilities to improve the energy efficiency by loosening the delivery requirements. This has led to the development of a novel geographic routing algorithm which is introduced in this document. Geographic Zero Overhead Routing (GZOR) is a statefree algorithm based on the concepts of volunteer forwarding and multipath routing. This combination creates robust and dynamic routing paths. The algorithm is intended to route packets from nodes to gateways with an acceptable delivery rate. This can be summarized as besteffort manytosome routing. GZOR nodes do not explore the network topology and do not provide transmission feedback. As a result, GZOR does not require proactive or reactive communication overhead. This property causes GZOR to be very energy efficient and scalable. It also allows nodes to engage in asynchronous energyconserving sleep cycles, which can greatly extend the lifetime of a network. GZOR's performance and behaviour is quantified and analysed by simulation. It is compared with Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR), which is a wellknown and studied geographic routing algorithm. GPSR is a routing algorithm that maintains position information on neighbouring nodes to decide to which nodes packets have to be send. Both algorithms are simulated onto various deployments and network densities. This research demonstrates that GZOR is able to achieve an acceptable delivery rate with a significantly smaller amount of communication than GPSR.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Thales Nederland B.V.
Faculty:EEMCS: Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science
Subject:54 computer science
Programme:Computer Science MSc (60300)
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