Omgaan met de psychologische effecten van dreiging

Klijnstra, M. (2009) Omgaan met de psychologische effecten van dreiging.

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Abstract:This literature study defines the psychological impact of threat. We have also examined whether these effects vary over time and how people can cope with these effects. This information has been gathered by using a literature study in research areas, which more or less correspond to threat. The research areas meet at least two of the following resemblances with threat. 1) The individual must have experienced a threatening event; 2) they must have found themselves in a situation they could not control anymore; 3) and/or the individual must have experienced strong emotions and feelings; 4) and/or the must have experienced feelings of insecurity. Based on the degree of similarity a distinction is made between mild, moderate and extreme threat. The psychological effects that may be experienced during threats are divided into clusters, namely: emotions, psychological reactions, social support and long-term effects. These psychological effects a person can experience during threat appear to vary over time. The process can pass through five stages, namely the impact, the denial, the honeymoon, the disillusion, the depression and the re-integration phase. It is shown that the amount of psychological effects experienced during threat depends on several factors. These are the seriousness of the threat, (un)certainty of the future, freedom of movement and a sense of control. Not all psychological effects occur simultaneously during threat. This seems to be related to the phase one is going through. During the first phases of with especially psychological reactions are experienced. These are during the impact phase, feelings of panic, disbelief and helplessness and during the denial phase loss of control. During the honeymoon phase one can experience a lack of social support. As from the disillusion phase habituation may take place. If habituation is lacking here, starting with the depression phase a depression or post-traumatic stress disorder could be developing Finally, the reintegration phase can bring about acceptance of the situation. During all these phases emotions are experienced, that diminish over time. In order to handle these effects one can use coping strategies. Especially in early phases disengagement coping strategies appear to be effective, where during later phases engagement coping strategies prevail.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:77 psychology
Programme:Psychology MSc (66604)
Link to this item:http://purl.utwente.nl/essays/59448
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