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IPS cells from type I diabetes mellitus for disease modeling and therapy - a review on the possibilities and limitations

Stojanovic, Ivan (2009) IPS cells from type I diabetes mellitus for disease modeling and therapy - a review on the possibilities and limitations.

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Abstract:Type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is becoming an increasing problem. IDDM patients have a lacking or entirely non-operative insulin production. In IDDM patients the pancreatic beta cells (usually responsible for insulin production) have been destroyed by an autoimmune response. The actual mechanisms behind this autoimmune response are currently poorly understood. This paper has reviewed recent research that focussed on explaining the mechanisms behind autoimmune responses and progression towards IDDM. Genetic susceptibility to IDDM was also included, reviewing a number of the best documented associated genetic loci, showing that IDDM is a polygenic disease. As IDDM is not only explicable through genetic susceptibility, this paper also focussed on serum metabolomics of IDDM patients. The metabolomics give an insight into the processes and metabolic changes within the human body preceding autoimmunity and show that metabolic changes can give early indications of progression towards clinical IDDM. Currently there is no generally accepted cure for IDDM. Insulin injections are the most common therapy, however this does not restore patient insulin production. Insulin injections are more reminiscent of disease management instead of an actual cure. Treatment options for IDDM patients were compared to possible future treatment developments. Beta cell producing systems, based on embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (ES and iPS cells), can replenish insulin production in IDDM patients. IPS cells have great potential due to their similarities to ES cells and their patient and disease specificity. Currently however iPS cells are not used therapeutically due mainly to limitations inherent to their production which is based on forced expression of transformation factors traditionally using viral vectors. Through this forced expression human somatic cells can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state after which they can be differentiated into any desired cell type. In this paper, future developments of iPS cell production and application (in relation to IDDM) were reviewed. These developments include theraputic application and the usage of iPS cells for the generation of highly accurate IDDM disease models.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:TNW: Science and Technology
Subject:42 biology
Programme:Health Sciences MSc (66851)
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