University of Twente Student Theses


CE-marking : creating a model for applying the EMC, LVD and machinery directive

Hoeven, E.T. van der (2012) CE-marking : creating a model for applying the EMC, LVD and machinery directive.

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Abstract:To further improve a single European market, the New Approach was introduced for European product safety law in 1985, indicated by CE-marking. It harmonises product safety legislation by creating mandatory fundamental legal safety requirements (directives) and voluntary technical specification standards (norms). To acquire CE-marking on a product, a manufacturer has to complete a CE-trajectory and meet the safety requirements of the applicable directives. The goal of this research was to capture the CE-trajectory in a generally usable decision making tool for manufacturers to comply with a product to the EMC, LVD and/or machinery directive. To achieve this, first scientific literature, legal documents and practical insights were analysed to create a theoretical framework. In this report the functioning of CE legislation through directives and standardisation is discussed along with implications for manufacturers. After that an elaboration is given on the different components of acquiring CE-marking on a product, the content of the EMC, LVD and machinery directive and the exploration of decision making tools. This formed the basis for creating a well-founded decision making model. The model, a decision tree, is described in section 4.2. To evaluate the effectiveness of the design, a case study was executed as empirical method. The CE-trajectory of a high pressure water jetting gun was analysed with the decision making tool to see how the model functioned in practice and to analyse if the process of acquiring CE-marking became more efficient. The designed decision making tool was adapted on the basis of the results. The decision making model is made up of questions. The first part consists of determining the applicable directives, leading to six options, varying from „all three directives apply‟ to „none apply‟. The application of each directive was analysed separately. This was done until the needed provisions to acquire CE-marking for a certain product could be determined, formulated as „actions manufacturer‟ in the model. If two or three directives apply to a product the described paths in the model can be combined. All options and combinations of paths give 72 possible outcomes in this model. The model was tested by means of a case study. The data analysis of this test gave the following results. First of all, the model provides clarity and overview in the complex matter of CE-marking. Applicable directives and possible outcomes (actions manufacturers) are clearly listed. Using the model can lead to efficiency and it can support implementing CE-marking into work processes. Although used definitions are distinct, they can be difficult to translate into practice. The model is limited to three directives, but other applicable directives can appear because of exclusions. A CE-trajectory is not automated by this model. Finally certain leeway can remain present within the defined paths, which subsequently is supported by supplying relevant information as outcome of the model. The CE-trajectory is clearly captured in a decision making tool for manufacturers to comply with a product to the EMC, LVD and/or machinery directive. Based on this research and the case study, the model is generally usable, but for a better founded statement on the generalisation of the model, further testing is advisable. The model is at the junction legal and technical fields of study and could be useful for research in both fields. This research can serve as starting point for follow-up studies or further research. Furthermore could the decision making model be translated into practice. It can be developed into a web-based variant to assist manufacturers, showing one question at a time for easy navigating through the decision tree and the applicable directives can be listed as a legal groundwork for a product. After that the actions for manufacturers can be listed as outcome, based on the applicable path.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:85 business administration, organizational science
Programme:Business Administration MSc (60644)
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