University of Twente Student Theses


Swingers en middelengebruik: reden tot zorg?: Een onderzoek naar middelengebruik door swingers en de rol van psychosociale gedragsdeterminanten ten aanzien van drugsgebruik tijdens het swingen

Bijen, M.E.M. (2012) Swingers en middelengebruik: reden tot zorg?: Een onderzoek naar middelengebruik door swingers en de rol van psychosociale gedragsdeterminanten ten aanzien van drugsgebruik tijdens het swingen.

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Abstract:Objective: ‘Swinging’ is an increasingly popular lifestyle where heterosexual couples perform non monogamous sexual activities with other couples and/or singles and vice versa. The use of substances (alcohol, erectile stimulants and drugs) during swinging, seems to increase. However, which substances are used, in what quantities and in which combinations is not yet determined. This study examined the frequency, quantity and combinations of substance use by swingers, whether drugs affect sexual behaviour and the behavioral determinants that may affect drug use during swinging. Methods: Both qualitative and quantitative measurements were used in this study. Swingers participated in semi-structured individual interviews. This qualitative study primarily focused on exploring ‘swinging’, substance use and motives for and consequences of drug use. In order to get a large population, the quantitative research was conducted online. This quantitative research aimed to determine the extent of substance use and the influence of behavioral determinants, such as attitude, social norms, descriptive norms, self efficacy and outcome expectancies on drug use during swinging. Results: Over 70% of the respondents who filled out the online questionnaire used alcohol, over 50% used erectile stimulants and 40% mentioned the use of drugs during a swing night. Especially XTC and GHB, but also cannabis, nitrous oxide (commonly known as laughing gas) and poppers seemed to be popular drugs. The majority of respondents using drugs, mixed several types of drugs with or without alcohol and/or erectile stimulants. The results showed that drug use is associated with positive as well as negative effects on emotions, social interactions, awareness and physical effects. Men and polydrug users (respondents using more than one type of drugs), experienced more positive effects than women and singledrug users. Moreover women and polydrug users associated drug use with more negative effects than men and single users. Non-drugs users expected negative effects more often, compared to users. Regression analysis showed that the behavioral determinants, attitude, social norms, descriptive norms and outcome-expectancies, explained almost 39% of the variance in intention to start using drugs. The intention to start is also influenced by previous drug experiences. With respect to the intention to stop using drugs, the behavioral determinants explained 19% of the variance. The behaviour, using or not using drugs, is for 62% explained by attitude, social norms and descriptive norms. Drug use during swinging also appeared to have some effect on risky sexual behaviour. Drug users use significantly less condoms during oral sex and clean their hands significantly less after sexual activities. Furthermore, compared to non-drug users, drug users report more STD’s and score significantly higher on contracting gonorrhea. Conclusion: The results of this study provide insight into substance use by swingers, behavioral determinants and outcome expectancies which play a role in drug use. The results show that swingers who use drugs perform more risky behaviour, because of a high frequency of polydrug use and more risky sexual behaviour. The behavioral determinants attitude, social norms and descriptive norms, are strong predictors of drug use during swinging. Knowledge about the influence of these determinants, can contribute to the development of accurate prevention strategies which do not judge nor underestimate substance use by swingers
Item Type:Essay (Master)
GGD Twente
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:05 communication studies
Programme:Communication Studies MSc (60713)
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