University of Twente Student Theses


Swingers, soa-testen en partnerwaarschuwing. Een onderzoek naar soa-testen en partnerwaarschuwing bij swingers en psychosociale gedragsdeterminanten die hieraan ten grondslag liggen

Brunnekreef, G.C. (2012) Swingers, soa-testen en partnerwaarschuwing. Een onderzoek naar soa-testen en partnerwaarschuwing bij swingers en psychosociale gedragsdeterminanten die hieraan ten grondslag liggen.

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Abstract:Objective: Partner switch, co marital sex, wife swapping and open marriages, for sixty years these are common used terms for the phenomenon; swinging. Swinging is an activity where heterosexual couples have sexual activities with other couples or singles. Recent figures suggest that swingers are a growing group where many STD’s are diagnosed. It is therefore a sexual behaviour with an increasing relevance in the domain of STD and HIV prevention. Testing on STD and partner warning are two priorities which could give an important contribution to the decrease of undiagnosed STD and will increase a better sexual health. However, the knowledge of determinants, which have influence on testing on STD and partner warning, are lacking in the literature. Therefore this ambiguous research tries to give insights in frequencies and motivations which have influence on sexual behaviour, test behaviour and warning behaviour. Besides, by using the model Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is tried to identify important psychosocial behavioural determinants, which play an important role at the intention shaping and the behaviour to test on STD or partner warning. Methods: The study has been conducted with qualitative and quantitative measuring-instruments. Twenty-five swingers participated in semi-structured depth interviews, when they visited the STD- clinic of GGD Twente. The focus was to explore the world of swingers and to identify sexual behaviours, testing behaviour and partner warning and in particular to identify with TPB the various motives that underlie whether to test for STD and to warn partners. The quantitative study was conducted with an online questionnaire, among a larger population (N= 1135) which focused on frequencies and motivations of behaviour (protecting behaviours, testing behaviours and warning behaviour). Furthermore the model TPB was examined to identify psychosocial behavioural determinants which influence test behaviour and partner warning. Results: The qualitative and quantitative study both confirmed the impression that swingers had frequent unprotected sexual intercourses. In particular, manual- (fingering and jerking off) and oral sexual activities are practiced unsafe. Most respondents did use a condom during vaginal- and anal sexual intercourses with swing partners. Group-sex, pay dates, and orgies without the use of a condom gained territory and became more popular among the swingers population. Despite the unsafe sexual behaviour, almost 70% of the respondents tested at least once for STD’s in the past year. However, only 45% of the respondents who participated in the online survey, tested frequently on STD’s. Compared to the tested, non-tested found it more difficult to tell that they were swinging and they were more afraid of the procedure of the STD-test. The main reasons for not (frequent) testing for STD’s were: a low perceived vulnerability for contracting STD’s, a lack of time, limited opening times and they forgot to make an appointment for a STD-test. By analysis of variance and regression analysis, the impacts of psychosocial behavioural determinants on intention were compared and the TPB-model was tested. The determinants of TPB (attitude, social norm, self-efficacy and intention) are important predictors of the intention and behaviour formation to test on STD’s. In addition, a higher perceived susceptibility, a higher swing frequency and a lower age were also significant predictors of the intention to test and test behaviour. The explained variance of the intention to test the coming 6 months and to test frequently on STD’s was respectively 49% and 50%. The explained variance of behaviour was 49%. About half of the respondents of the online survey had some experience with a form of partner warning and a third warned partners by themselves. The respondents’, who warned their partners themselves, have shown not to apply the partner warning always correctly and accurate enough. Two third of the respondents didn’t warn all the sexual contacts and one third warned contacts of a too short period, therefore not all the potentially infected partners were warned. The main barriers in warning partners were: shame and the lack of contact information of sexual partners. By means of analysis of variance and regression analysis, psychosocial behavioural determinants were identified and TPB was tested. Determinants of the TPB-model (attitude, self-efficacy and intention) predict the intention and warning behaviour. In addition, the perceived severity of STD’s, a higher swing frequency and a higher age played also a role in the formation of intention and behaviour. The explained variance of intention and behaviour was respectively 22% and 29%. Conclusion: This first study to STD-tests and partner warning among swingers provides an insight into frequencies, motivations and psychosocial determinants that play an important role in testing for STD’s and partner warning. Interventions should focus on promoting frequent testing for STD’s. The behavioural determinants; risk perception, attitude, social norm and self-efficacy play a crucial role. Interventions in the area of partner warning should stimulate ‘accurate’ partner warning. Just as obtaining and maintaining contact information of swing partners and reducing barriers such as shame. Herewith are increasing the perceived severity of STD’s and the TPB variables fundamental. The results of this study are an important complement to the currently existing literature in the field of STD / HIV prevention
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:05 communication studies
Programme:Communication Studies MSc (60713)
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