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The user effects of using textual cues to increase image viewing attention

Kornalijnslijper, D.S. (2012) The user effects of using textual cues to increase image viewing attention.

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Abstract:Textual cues are commonly used in illustrated text documents to link content written in words with relevant content depicted in illustrations. Cues could potentially bene�t learning from illustrated text documents by encouraging the simultaneous presence of textual and pictorial information in readers' working memory and thus, help readers gain an integrated understanding of the presented concepts. However, little is known of the e�ect of textual cues on learning and reading behaviour. Here I describe two experiments that were conducted to examine the e�ect of textual cues embedded in illustrated text documents on recall and reading behaviour. Two types of textual cues were used to link the text to the image: simple and explicit cues. Simple cues are a short reference such as \see the map" or \see the illustration" while explicit cues provide more aid to the reader by describing the referenced concepts and objects, such as \Notice in the picture how the Tuareg territory is spread over the new nations". Cues were expected to increase the recall of information linked to the cues. In the recall performance experiment, 60 participants were presented with 12 presentation and were tested on recall. In the reading observations experiment, 5 participants were given the same presentations and their gaze was tracked with an eye tracker to gain a better understanding of their reading behaviour. Results from the recall performance experiment showed no signi�cant di�erences in recall between simple cues-, explicit cuesand the control (no cues) condition. Further analysis suggested that English skills may have in uenced how well the information had been recalled. However, overall results were not conclusive enough to con�rm any relation between the presence of cues and recall. Results from the reading behaviour experiment showed that participants switched attention to the illustration more often without the aid of cues than with the aid of cues. Furthermore, participants employed di�erent strategies for switching attention, suggesting that reading styles may vary widely between readers. Several factors might have contributed to the results in both experiments, such as: lack of complexity in the presentations, the participants' reading behaviour, the level of motivation and reading skills, and limitations of the experiment design. The implications of these results are discussed and a number of recommendations and suggestions are provided to guide further text design research.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:EEMCS: Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science
Subject:77 psychology
Programme:Interaction Technology MSc (60030)
Link to this item:http://purl.utwente.nl/essays/61932
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