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Argumentatie en wantrouwen - Hoe goede argumenten tot negatieve effecten kunnen leiden

Kerling, Patrick (2012) Argumentatie en wantrouwen - Hoe goede argumenten tot negatieve effecten kunnen leiden.

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Abstract:The way we process information traditionally has been explained using different dual-processing theories. Under the influence of the proper motivation information is thoroughly processed or, when motivation is lacking, only heuristic processing takes place. The way information is processed influences which information is used for the final evaluation. Especially in situations where people are distrustful those dual-processing theories are used to explain the influence of information processing on the evaluation. This fundamental research combines research focused on information processing and distrust in a B2C-context. Although organisatons try everything to avoid it, at some point even the best organisations are confronted with distrustful consumers. Under the influence of distrust consumers have negative expectations regarding the intention of the organisation. Those negative expectations are based upon evalutions of integrity, competence and benevolence, which result in a consumer that is unwilling to depend on the given organisation and is motivated to thoroughly process al the information coming from that organisation (Jonas, Diehl, & Bröhmer, 1997). When expectations are violated counter-arguments are generated (Sanna & Turley, 1996). Counter-arguments are cognitions that converge with the information coming from the organisation. A certain amount of cognitive capacity is required to process those counter-arguments. However the cognitive capacity to process information is limited (Miller, 1956; Doumont, 2002). As the amount of information that needs to be processed increases, so will the time needed to process the information (Eppler, & Mengis, 2004; Lurie, 2004; Redlawsk, 2002). The generation and processing of the additional counter-arguments (under the influence of distrust) will result in a decline in the processing fluency, the ease with which information is processed. The processing fluncy theory states that there is a direct influency of the ease with which information is processed and the attitude. The results of the first study demonstrate that, as predicted (hypothesis 1), trust has a direct influence on the generation of counter-arguments, but that opposite to hypothesis 2, the amount of perceived control does not moderate this relationship between trust and counter-arguments. The amount of counter-arguments did not influence the attitude regarding the organisation. A unexpected interaction-effect has been found of distrust and control on positive affect. Subjects in the low control condition did not report a difference in positive affect in the trust and distrust condition, but the subject in the high control condition did. Subjects where more positive in de trust condition then in the distrust condition. Another direct affect has been found from trust on negative affect. Subjects in the trust condition where more negative then subjects in the distrust condition. Study 2 uses a indirect method of measuring the generation of counter-arguments, but does not find any evidence that supports hypothesis 1. Trust has no direct affect on the generation of counterarguments and no effect has been found from the counter-arguments on processing fluency or attitude. As expected (hypothesis 5) has trust a direct effect on processing fluency. On the basis of these results a recommendation is made regarding a better method for manipulating and measuring the amount and valence of counter-arguments. The fact that trust has a direct influence on the processing fluency is a indication that there is a information processing under distrust that requires more cognitive capacity. In conclusion with the results of both studies there is a direct effect of trust on counter-arguments (study 1), trust also has a direct effect on processing fluency, positive affect, negative affect and the attitude. The lack of a reliable methode for measuring the amount and valence of counterarguments in study 2 appears to be an interesting opportunity for future research.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:05 communication studies
Programme:Communication Studies MSc (60713)
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