Improving interoperability between electric mobility and the electricity system - Towards a reference architecture for charging electric vehicles

Brand, Allard (2013) Improving interoperability between electric mobility and the electricity system - Towards a reference architecture for charging electric vehicles.

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Abstract:The current ways of energy provision will change dramatically in the coming decades. The European Union has committed to drastically reduce Europe's greenhouse gas emissions to 80-95% below 1990 levels in 2050. At the same time, electric mobility is getting significant attention in the Netherlands and many other countries. The emergence of electric mobility introduces new threats and opportunities in relation to the electricity system, which require an increased degree of integration between the markets of electric mobility and the electricity system. The current architecture for electric mobility is inadequate, since there is no possibility to influence the charge process based on information from market parties such as the distribution system operator and/or the energy market. Charging can neither be influenced based on grid constraints nor the amount of (renewable) energy supply available. The main reason is that in the current situation, there is an absence of integration between the markets of electric mobility and the electricity system. In addition, the lack of a profitable business model can be identified. Because of the potential threats and opportunities and the impact that this could have on the business model, there is a need for further integration between the two markets. The aim of the current research is to define a reference architecture based on the current developments and concepts from literature to help market players, such as Alliander, in making the right steps forward. The research is focused on the charging infrastructure in the public and semi-public space, concerning charge points for customers that cannot charge at home or need to charge during their travel. To structure the research, the Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM) is applied. In addition, we apply the enterprise architecture approach as proposed by Iacob et al. (2012). This approach is based on open standards; using the `Architecture Development Method' (ADM) from TOGAF, and ArchiMate as the modeling language and framework. As main objectives, the reference architecture needs to (1) optimally integrate with the electricity system, (2) accommodate the adoption of renewable energy sources, (3) be aligned with European standardization developments and (4) have a positive impact on the current business model. Based on a literature study, design choices and their consequences are described which form the basis of the reference architecture. The main design choices involve the concept of ‗smart charging‘ and its implementations, and the shift of the energy contract by changing the formal end-user of electricity. Based on the literature study, a reference architecture is defined for electric mobility. To provide a path for implementation and migration, a migration architecture is established. To validate the reference and migration architectures, a series of structured interviews have been carried out with a total of six interviewees. All interviewees acknowledged the problems in the current architecture. Overall, the interviewees acknowledged that the reference architecture would result in the objectives as stated in the current research. At the same time, some critical notes and improvements have been proposed. Based on these remarks, improved versions of the reference and migration architectures have been modeled that encompass the final artifacts of the current research.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Clients:
Alliander
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:85 business administration, organizational science
Programme:Business Information Technology MSc (60025)
Link to this item:http://purl.utwente.nl/essays/63764
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