University of Twente Student Theses


Assessment of urban air pollution abatement policy implementation vis-a-vis the role of household energy use in ger areas of Mongolia

Tsevegjav, Bulganmurun (2013) Assessment of urban air pollution abatement policy implementation vis-a-vis the role of household energy use in ger areas of Mongolia.

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Abstract:Since in the mid-2000s, the issue of air pollution has become a priority on the policy agenda of the Government of Mongolia (GoM). The major contributing factor to the problem is fossil fuel burning practices in residential buildings that are not connected to the central heating system. Today, all residents of Ulaanbaatar somehow contribute to the city air pollution through means of transportation, construction, heating and burning activities. However the premier source is fumes and polluting substances, created by coal and wood burning by over 180 thousand households living in suburban ger districts1 of Ulaanbaatar. The overall aim of this study is to contribute to the improvement of existing policy programs aimed to reduce urban air pollution, which is caused by existing energy production and usage practices in urban Mongolia. Thus, in the context of Mongolia, where coal is extensively used for heating purpose, the research objectives are twofold: The first objective is to assess existing policy practices on air pollution reduction aiming at household energy users by identifying a gap between the current situation in relation to the desired situation, where households are enabled to choose from various sustainable energy (SE) options that have benefits of improved air quality, efficient use of energy and improved living condition. Based on the first objective, the second objective is to provide recommendations to relevant policy makers and development practitioners in their quest to address air pollution problems that are related to the household energy use by drawing lessons learned from current programs and linking them with available best practices. Based on the above objectives, in this thesis the researcher aims to answer the main question: What can be learnt from policies and other measures that have been implemented to reduce effects of air pollution in the housing sector in the ger districts of Ulaanbaatar during the period of 2009 till 2013? The study presents in this report included both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The research involved a pre-dominantly quantitative study concerning availability of the SE options among households in ger districts. A qualitative research was conducted through questionnaire surveys among 28 households, which benefitted in purchase and installation of SE 1 The ger district is a geographical area within and outskirts of Ulaanbaatar, where approximately 30% of total population of Mongolia is residing in traditional “gers” and in individual detached houses, either built by adobe and bricks. It spans over 8,494 hectares and smokes from heating stoves from these areas contribute to major source of air pollution in Ulaanbaatar. ger means in Mongolian language “home”. It’s a round shaped traditional Mongolian dwelling consisting of a wooden frame beneath several layers of wool felt. The researcher uses ger, ger households, ger districts and ger areas interchangeably to refer those traditional nomadic dwellings and also individual modern houses detached from central heating grid. iv Bulganmurun Tsevegjav options. In 12 of these households solar energy vacuum collectors were installed under a Government-subsidized programme that represent 57% of total households (21 households in total) partcipipated in the programme. 16 households, that had been constructed energy efficiently under the Building Energy Efficient Project were surveyed, representing 15% of total beneficiaries. Furthermore, two expert interviews are conducted to analyze the situation and gaps from the supplier and implementer side. In the study, the sustainable energy options were grouped into three categories: Energy Efficient Measure (EEM), Renewable Energy solutions (RE) and Clean Fuel switch (CF). After examination of existing legal, policy frameworks, program and project initiatives on each SE options, a gap analysis was conducted in terms of desired and current situations. The gap assessment demonstrates there is a little gap for EEM policy instruments in terms of availability and affordability desired situation. There is partial satisfaction of EEM policy instruments for all desired situation criteria, except no gap in comfort setting. The RE policy instruments were assessed as ‘moderate’ in terms of availability and comfort setting, but were considered unsatisfactory in terms of affordability and reliability. Policy instruments on CF show the largest gap in terms of availability, affordability and reliability. In terms of barriers to adoption, the economic barrier is considered the most critical barrier in adopting all SE options by households. All programs and projects on EEM (Millennium Challenge Account, World Bank, Clean Air Foundation, Building Energy Efficient Project), RE (National Renewable Energy Center) and CF (Clean Air Foundation) used subsidy mechanisms. The following key recommendations are provided based on the lessons learned from the implementation experiences of the relevant programs: Create sustainable financial support schemes in adopting energy-efficient systems apart from subsidy (investment in energy efficient houses and renewable energy) and link them with affordable financial mechanisms available in the market, such as the “8 % housing loan scheme”, or valuation of land for loan collateral. Furthermore, following the results of the study it is recommended to reduce cost of energy-efficient products, technology, material and houses, by supporting manufacturers with facilitated loan, tax exemption, marketing and capacity building, and extending consumer base to avoid seasonal impact, for example in cleaner fuels.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:85 business administration, organizational science
Programme:Business Administration MSc (60644)
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