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De ontwikkeling van een codeerschema voor gezichtsuitdrukkingen die wijzen op de emotionele expressie van verdriet

Baukloh, C.I. (2015) De ontwikkeling van een codeerschema voor gezichtsuitdrukkingen die wijzen op de emotionele expressie van verdriet.

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Abstract:Of all researched emotions, sadness seems to last the longest in an individual and is elicited by events of high importance to that person. Determining the right nature and meaning of this emotion expressed in the face of another person thus seems to be important for successful communication. To date there is no exact description of which facial expressions exclusively indicate (a certain intensity of) sadness. In addition to helping people with emotion recognition problems, this description can be used in a professional therapeutic context in order to ensure therapeutic success. The field of systems for automatic emotion identification is missing such a definition as well. This master thesis is therefore directed at the development of a reliable coding scheme for facial expressions that indicate sadness. Considering certain characteristics of a person can influence emotion expression, the data will be researched for differences between sex and age at the expression of sadness through the face. Method. This thesis uses audio-visual oral history interviews of war memories from the project “Croatian Memories” as its main source. Two analysts observed twelve interviews in total, coded these for facial expressions of sadness and further defined these expressions. This process took place in three phases with a discussion about the consensus of the findings, functioning as control point, at the end of each phase. The coding resulted in a dataset on the basis of which frequency, variation and intensity of facially expressed sadness were measured for the entire sample as well as for each individual. Tests for significance were conducted in order to determine differences in emotional expression between the sexes and the two age groups (younger and older adults). Results. The reliability of the coding scheme was calculated using Cohen’s Kappa and shows κ = .877 for the definite coding scheme. This implies a nearly perfect consensus between the two analysts. The developed coding scheme contains five, in intensity increasing, different facial expressions that indicate sadness. The results show that the more intense a sad facial expression, the less often this expression was shown by the interviewees. Furthermore, there were no significant differences found with regard sex or age. Conclusion. The limited facial expression of intensive sadness could be explained by social inhibition effects and the way in which the interview questions were formulated. The missing differences between gender and age group are explained by the topic of the interviews. It seems as though specific social rules do not apply to certain characteristics of a person (sex/age) in the context of war memories. This research produces new results on which facial expressions exclusively indicate sadness and also which small differences in facial movements exclusively indicate a certain intensity of sadness. Therefore, this research highly contributes to the development of emotion identification. The coding scheme contributes to successful therapy processes of psychologists, to the learning of emotion identification for individuals with limitations in this, and to the development of systems for automatic emotion identification.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:77 psychology
Programme:Psychology MSc (66604)
Link to this item:http://purl.utwente.nl/essays/66931
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