To what extent can Dutch car drivers use a BEV for their personal car trips

Middag, W.J. (2015) To what extent can Dutch car drivers use a BEV for their personal car trips.

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Abstract:This report contains the research performed into the possibilities of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV). Road transport is responsible for many problems with air quality, climate change and oil dependence. Despite increased costs of car ownership and usage the share of the car in personal trips has increased with nearly 50% between 1980 and 2007. Despite cleaner cars the CO2 emission has increased by 33% in the same period. An alternative is the Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV). It has no tailpipe emission and can be green depending on the source of electricity. There are some significant drawbacks, a short range, long recharge times and not many recharge locations. With the improvements in lithium battery technology in the last decade the BEV becomes a more serious alternative. Tesla, Nissan and other car manufacturers have introduced an electric car and are getting a small market share. The range of around 150 km is still small compared to a range of 700 km for a Combustion Engine Vehicle (CEV). Literature shows that the short range of a BEV is seen as a major drawback by many people. On the other hand researchers found that people are not good at estimating their own range need because it not necessary when driving a CEV. Data from BEV owners shows that their annual driven distance is close to the average annual distance driven by CEV owners. To look past the initial resistance van den Brink et al. (2011) looked at eight week of trip diaries from car drivers. They found that 5% of one car households could use a BEV for their trips based on their trip diaries. The BEV range they assumed was only 75 km and the dataset of trip diaries came from the 1980s. Distances traveled by car have increased by almost 50% since 1983 and the range is at least 100 km for most BEVs. A dataset that is more recent is the Dutch Mobile Mobility Panel (MMP). It contains trip diaries from around 700 respondents for a period of two weeks and four weeks. The data is collected on personal level which means that when a respondent would be able to make all car trips with a BEV it does not necessarily mean that a BEV can replace the car because there is no data of other household members who may also have used the car. It provides the opportunity to look at the effect of fast charging, charging along the road and adaptations from car drivers. The goal of this research is: To study the relation between Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) improvements, adaptations from drivers and the possibility to make all personal car trips with a BEV by a data analysis of personal trip data from the mobile mobility panel (MMP) To prepare the data for the analysis the following steps were taken: finding all the zip codes from the origin and destination. Find the trip distance with a zip code distance matrix and remove all double trips. Around 10% of the trips had a different origin of a car trip than the destination of the previous trip. Because the respondent must have traveled between the destination of the previous trip and the origin of the current trip and he has used the car in both trips it is assumed that the trip was made but not registered. The missing trip is imputed because it is considered that the respondent has made the trip. Each BEV has a different range and recharge possibilities. In the analysis a set of ranges is evaluated between 75 km and 700 km. The most important recharge location is at home. Not everyone has the possibility to park a BEV on own terrain. The data does not provide information about who can recharge at home and who cannot. Van den Brink et al. (2011) determined that around 40% of addresses in the Netherlands have the possibility to recharge a BEV. The same percentage is used in this research. The respondents who have the possibility to recharge at home are chosen based on the urban density of their home address and their income. Low urban density and high income are associated with a higher change of being able to recharge at home.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:ET: Engineering Technology
Subject:56 civil engineering
Programme:Civil Engineering and Management MSc (60026)
Link to this item:http://purl.utwente.nl/essays/68125
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