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Development of pedestrian flow models in STEPS micro simulation software : cases for Bangkok and Singapore

Vosselman, J. (2007) Development of pedestrian flow models in STEPS micro simulation software : cases for Bangkok and Singapore.

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Abstract:This report covers the development of pedestrian micro simulation models for the Singapore Sports Hub in Singapore and the BTS Siam Station in Bangkok, Thailand, and the analysis of those models, for improving pedestrian walking comfort and safety and a quick dispersal of pedestrians. Pedestrian micro simulation is able of showing great levels of detail and interaction between pedestrians in relative small areas. Using flow data from the area and the situational characteristics, a micro simulation model can be built using the STEPS software. Flow data consists of demand and origins / destinations of pedestrians. Situational characteristics mainly focus on the spatial structure of the model and the characteristics of the links in the system. For the Singapore Sports Hub, a newly developed sports stadium in the city-state of Singapore, a model has been created for a worst-case scenario when 65.000 visitors have to leave the station within 1 hour. The model consists of the stadium, adjacent facilities and the newly developed MRT station. Two levels have been modelled. The ground level, with connections to several modes of transport, and the main concourse or level three, from which all visitors egress. Initial results showed that some queuing occurred at some places in the stadium and the concourse, especially the ramp at the east side of the stadium (exit 2) and the vertical link from the stadium to the new MRT station. With the help of ‘first principles’ method the capacity of those links has been analysed and some suggestions have been made on widening those links. Furthermore, with the help of crowd control, in order to lead people away from the most crowded areas during the process of exiting, the design will be able to handle the demand of 65.000 visitors within one hour. For BTS, the elevated mass transit system in the highly urbanized area of inner Bangkok, a model of the Siam Station has been created. This model consists of the concourse, including the connection to various shopping malls, the lower and the upper platform. The model is based on two scenarios. First, there is the 2006 pm peak scenario, which is mainly used for testing purposes. The Level of Service is guaranteed under all circumstances and delays are within acceptable levels. The second scenario (called 2011) is based on the fact that all extensions under development are completed and that there is a full network. Furthermore, year 2011 forecast models are used for the demand of this model. With the assumption of the proposed six-car trains in operation by then, there are some issues, especially with the flow from upper to lower platform. Because of the demand being high, there occurs heavy queuing in front of the escalator, with an average delay of 39 seconds. Furthermore, LoS is becoming lower, and the crowds block flow going upwards. Therefore, longer barriers between escalators are proposed to let people queue better on the platform. The available stairway connection between both platforms should be used by people from upper to lower platform only. Considering further growth, an extra escalator could be thought of, though space is lacking. Furthermore, platform screendoors could help improve the safety of passengers waiting on the platform in crowded situations. Improved and more detailed studies can lead to reliable solutions, whereas current research only reveals and localizes problems, especially in the case of the BTS station, where a continuation of the study is highly recommended. The stadium study should keep up with the changing design of the stadium premises, in order to give reliable prospects on pedestrian behaviour.
Item Type:Essay (Bachelor)
Faculty:ET: Engineering Technology
Subject:56 civil engineering
Programme:Civil Engineering BSc (56952)
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