University of Twente Student Theses


Intra-Value Conflicts and Nietzsche's Perspectivism : Multiple Perspectives of Values and Tackling Grand Challenges

Cents, M.H.G. (2017) Intra-Value Conflicts and Nietzsche's Perspectivism : Multiple Perspectives of Values and Tackling Grand Challenges.

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Abstract:The prime aim of this thesis is to make intra-value conflicts clearly comprehendible and make clear how such an understanding can contribute to ethical decision-making in our technological age. An intra-value conflict can be described as the presence of different interpretations of what we consider important or desirable within the conceptual boundary of the word, e.g. sustainability or well-being. To make this comprehensible, it is argued that Nietzsche’s perspectivism makes for a good candidate to grasp the nature of this notion. Perspectivism can be described as the philosophical theory put forth by Nietzsche in that there are many different worldviews depending on an individual’s or group’s particular perspective. To make the connection between values and Nietzsche’s perspectivism and to contrast perspectivism with other moral theories, a short exegesis is given in the way Nietzsche came to stand in opposition to earlier views and valuations, bringing about his revaluation of all values. This opposition was based on the argument that previous philosophers had largely ignored the perspectival nature of their own views and valuations. In expounding how perspectivism explicates intra-value conflicts, a distinction is made between the cognitive-conceptual, the affective-valuational, and the conative-conflictual elements of perspectivism and intra-value conflicts. In reference to the cognitive-conceptual element, it is argued that we simplify the world according to the kind or constructs that are present to us. In this particular simplification, we equate into our knowledge that which fits one’s already existent knowledge, leading to for instance a particular conceptualization of a value. This however, it is argued, could be seen only as a sign and surface world which excludes our affective and conative endowments. In reference to the affective-valuational element, it is argued that we create feelings and emotions that manifest themselves into how and what we valuate. In this particular valuation, we come to value and revere those things that positively increase and aid our affect, setting in motion long-term orientation and conation for the conduct of such values. In reference to conative-conflictive element, it is argued that we tend to subdue a particular interpretation of a value belonging to the self over those of others. In this particular subduing, we reason a reconceptualization of dissimilar value-interpretations, or, enforce an affect – ‘effect a change’ – in the conduct of values of others. Due to the presence of perspectives and dispositions other than those involved in the direct design and construction of technology, who nonetheless have a bearing on the implementation of technology, a number of perspectives with regard to intra-value conflicts have been described. The other perspectives that are highlighted in this thesis are entrepreneurship, governance, and science. Based on the previously described framework, the perspectival nature of these dispositions, and the presence of intra-value conflicts as a result of it, a solution is provided for intra-value conflicts in the service of Tackling Grand Challenges.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:08 philosophy
Programme:Philosophy of Science, Technology and Society MSc (60024)
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