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External water footprint of Indonesian provinces : the external water footprint of Indonesian provinces and the impact of the virtual water concept on current governmental policy

Beeker, P.M. (2008) External water footprint of Indonesian provinces : the external water footprint of Indonesian provinces and the impact of the virtual water concept on current governmental policy.

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Abstract:In the history of Indonesia, trade with several countries shaped the country to its current state. In the recent past, the country suffered an economical crisis, making the country dependent on other countries when it comes to importing goods for several years. The current view of the Indonesian government on food security is to aim at food self sufficiency particular for main food (rice, maize, soybean and sugar), diminishing trade for these particular products and implicitly decreasing the external water footprint of the country. The concept of the water footprint has been developed to indicate the water use in relation to the consumption by people. The main objective of this project is to quantify the external water footprint of Indonesian provinces, flows of virtual water (water used to produce products) entering and leaving provinces of Indonesia to and from other countries, and to design appropriate concepts and tools for governmental water management concerning virtual water trade. To calculate the distribution fraction of an imported product to a specific province import data from all major harbors of all provinces of Indonesia have been used. By knowing the virtual water content of the imported product, it was possible to give a first impression of virtual water flows to Indonesian provinces from imported products. Results show that during 2000-2005 the largest volume of virtual water has been imported by Jakarta and Surabaya. This is caused by the presence of most manufacturing factories on the island of Jawa, particularly for wheat and cotton. Next to these products, soybean and rice are large contributors to the total import of virtual water. To give an indication of the consumption of these products by the population of the country, provinces are combined in six island groups. Assuming that imported products at a specific province are consumed by inhabitants of the provinces’ island group, it can be concluded that the per capita virtual water consumption due to imported products is highest on Jawa island. The five products that together contribute eighty-four percent to the total volume of imported virtual water are soy beans, wheat, cotton, rice and sugar. The Indonesian government has developed policy to decrease import for these specific products in the coming years. The Indonesian government set a goal of food self sufficiency, which will result in a drastic decrease of volumes of virtual water due to imported products. A SWOT-analysis has been conducted to investigate the impact of implementing the concept of virtual water to current and future governmental policies. It shows that the concept can have a positive impact on current and future Indonesian governmental policies.
Item Type:Essay (Bachelor)
LabMath-Indonesia, Indonesia
Faculty:ET: Engineering Technology
Subject:56 civil engineering
Programme:Civil Engineering BSc (56952)
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