University of Twente Student Theses


Safe drinking water for men and animals

Vierstra, M.M. (2007) Safe drinking water for men and animals.

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Abstract:Students of different disciplines are often send abroad to do small scale development projects. This report is part of a project (Save Drinking Water for Men and Animals) that sends a technical student with a veterinarian student abroad who have the common goal to improve hygiene and health in an underdeveloped village. Target of this research is installing water supplies with clear, potable water in a safe and hygienic environment. Therefore a literature study is done to all facets, difficulties and problems regarding the realization of water supplies in development countries. The approach used in this research is largely based on the method Water Safety Plans of the World Health Organization (Davidson et al., 2005). The Water Safety Plans, in turn, is part of the Guidelines for Save Drinking Water (Abbaszedegan et al., 2004). However this method does not deal with practical designs and therefore directives of the Bolivian government are added to design water supplies (Norma Boliviana, 2006 and 1995). Finally for Operation & Maintenance important directives of Davis & Brikké (1995) have been used. After doing research to geo- and hydrological properties of the area, site investigation and hazard assessment (Water Safety Plans), a flat area within the agricultural area (the pampa) has been chosen to construct a water supply with respect to the Water Safety Plans and Bolivian directives. The best way to realize a water supply in this area within the framework of the project Save Drinking Water for Men and Animals is creating a water tank just below the ground surface. This water tank will be automatically filled with water from a 50 meters deep confined aquifer, containing clear and potable water. The water tank will be filled automatically due to a constant hydrostatic pressure which is present throughout the year. On top of a water tank a pump will to be installed. Research and practical experiences showed that Bolivian pumps need to be long-lasting; the importance of the pump being long-lasting is inferior to the pump having sufficient capacity since time is no issue on the Bolivian highlands. The area around the pump should be kept as hygienic as possible in order to secure the quality of the water for the future. Therefore a concrete slab should be constructed around any water supply. Furthermore a ditch and a fence should be included in order to keep the pump area clean and hygienic. To ensure the continuity of the water supplies is guaranteed, operation & maintenance plays a crucial role. For this type of water supply, only a selection of the directions of Davis & Brikké (1995) is necessary to ensure the continuity of this type water supply. Responsibilities are given to those who meet the criteria (Davis & Brikké, 1995). Other technical solutions are a rope-pump, springwater catchment, rainwater catchment or PVC-pumps. All of these could be applicable, but within their own conditions and budgets.
Item Type:Essay (Bachelor)
Faculty:ET: Engineering Technology
Subject:56 civil engineering
Programme:Civil Engineering BSc (56952)
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