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Spiritual well-being instruments : a systematic review of the psychometric properties of frequently used scales

Pellengahr, J.M. (2018) Spiritual well-being instruments : a systematic review of the psychometric properties of frequently used scales.

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Abstract:Introduction: Spiritual well-being (SWB) experienced a constant increase of attention over the past decades, as it correlated beneficially with good mental health and coping strategies especially in difficult life situations. Therefore, SWB might aid the development of clinical treatments to improve people’s quality of life. Experts often base the development of interventions and treatments on instruments that measure constructs such as SWB, which requests well-validated and reliable instruments. This literature review, therefore, focuses on the most frequently used SWB instruments of the present age. Accordingly, it investigates the quality of the studies that focused on psychometric properties such as the internal consistency, the test-retest reliability and the content validity. The definition of SWB contains slightly different interpretations among experts. Therefore, one working definition was formulated for this review that was based on two major models that define SWB, namely the ‘Four Domain Model’ and the ‘Two-dimension Model’. Methods: A literature review of 459 publications was conducted. This set of references was obtained via two databases: PsycInfo and Web of Science. The most frequently used SWB instruments of the past ten years were extracted. Accordingly, one or more key publications about psychometric properties were determined for each instrument at stake and evaluated by the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. Results: Two most frequently used SWB instruments could be extracted from this review, namely the ‘Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy – Spiritual Well-being Scale’ (FACIT-Sp) and the ‘Spiritual Well-Being Scale’ (SWBS). According to the COSMIN criteria the quality of those studies ranged from poor to fair. In conclusion, the statements about the validity and reliability made in those studies need to be treated with caution due to their insufficient quality and more research is needed. Discussion: The most important outcome of this review is that the FACIT-SP and the SWBS have only been tested with insufficient quality concerning reliability and content validity yet. The lack of high quality studies concerning psychometric properties might originate from the fact that the SWB definition carries different interpretations and that it is still debated if the religious dimension should be integrated or not within items. Furthermore, many studies administered the instrument only once which was to the detriment of the test-retest reliability. When comparing both instruments, it was concluded that the FACIT-Sp appears more suitable to measure SWB when considering the quality and content of the instrument.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
1994, Laer, Germany
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:77 psychology
Programme:Psychology MSc (66604)
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