University of Twente Student Theses


SENS-U Bladder Sensor: continuous home monitoring of natural nocturnal bladder filling in children with nocturnal enuresis

Kwinten, BSc W.M.J. (2019) SENS-U Bladder Sensor: continuous home monitoring of natural nocturnal bladder filling in children with nocturnal enuresis.

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Abstract:Introduction: Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is a common problem in school-aged children, with huge psychological and emotional impact. Currently, the wetting alarm, based on negative feedback, is used for treatment. The SENS-U Bladder Sensor is developed to help children stay dry based on positive feedback and its feasibility is successful in day-time incontinence. The sensor measures the anterior-posterior (A-P) bladder dimension based on ultrasound. Objectives: The aim of this thesis was to investigate feasibility and optimization of the SENS-U for children with NE. An MRI study was performed to gain insight in the full bladder shape changes in different positions and the effect on the theoretical SENS-U measurement. Next, a clinical study focused on the feasibility of the SENS-U in ambulatory care in children with NE to examine if the SENS-U was able to measure natural nocturnal bladder filling (NNBF) cycles. Full bladder deformation: MRI scans were made in three healthy adults in four positions; standing, supine, left side and prone. Next to voided volume using a measurement cup, the theoretical SENS-U volume was determined. Results showed that bladder shape did change due to gravitational force and that inter subject differences (i.a. age and presence of internal abdominal fat) had effect on the theoretical SENS-U measurement. The theoretical volume was underestimated, most likely caused by difference in A-P and left-right bladder dimension. SENS-U in ambulatory care for NE: In this home-based observational pilot study, fifteen children (6-12 years) were measured with the SENS-U during one night. The sensor measured A-P bladder dimension and body position every 30 seconds. Voided volume was collected and filled in in a voiding diary with corresponding time by the parents. In addition, a sub children’s sleep habit questionnaire (CSHQ) was filled in. Results showed that fifteen out of eighteen NNBF cycles were measured successfully, a success rate of 83%. Wearing the SENS-U did not have major effects on the children’s sleep. The theoretical notification success rate, based on 80% of the patient’s expected bladder capacity, was 17 %. In addition it was seen that the SENS-U overestimated bladder volume and that its measurement depended on body position which caused the bladder to move outside the field of view of the SENS-U. When the position dependency is solved, the SENS-U might be a new way to prevent bedwetting.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Novioscan, Nijmegen, NL
Faculty:TNW: Science and Technology
Subject:50 technical science in general
Programme:Technical Medicine MSc (60033)
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