University of Twente Student Theses


Sustainable building in Iran: case study : an animal hospital and wildlife-rehabilitation centre

Flisijn, J. (2018) Sustainable building in Iran: case study : an animal hospital and wildlife-rehabilitation centre.

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Abstract:The goal of the bachelor thesis is to design a sustainable animal hospital and wildlife-rehabilitation centre in Shiraz, Fars province in Iran. The thesis assignment is commissioned by Stichting Simba Nature Protection and Education Foundation. Stichting Simba is committed to protect flora and fauna and providing environmental education in Iran. The design and future realisation of the animal hospital and wildlife-rehabilitation centre is an aid to perceive the goals of Stichting Simba. To develop a design that meets the goals of Stichting Simba a main research question is prepared: How to design a sustainable animal hospital and wildlife-rehabilitation centre in Iran in terms of environmental and economic aspects? This question is divided into sub-questions that help to elaborate the main research question. The sub-questions are: 1. How can the animal hospital and wildlife-rehabilitation centre energy needs be covered by using renewable energy sources? 2. What are the economic and environmental impacts of the building? 3. How can the use of water and the waste of water be managed in a sustainable way? To be able to answer these questions, information was necessary on how the design of the animal hospital and wildlife-rehabilitation centre would become. For the design process the design method of Nigel Cross was used. This design method is a seven-step approach to realize a complete design. For this thesis only the first three steps were undertaken to give a preliminary design in the time available, that satisfies the needs of Stichting Simba. The first step was to determine the objectives of the design based on the project assignment and other needs and wishes from Stichting Simba. Objectives of importance are sustainability, safety, accessibility and attractiveness. With these objectives the method proceeds with the second step, determining the functions of the design. It became clear that the design should facilitate a place where animals could be aided to recover or get better. But also, it should be a place where people can recreate, educate and live. The third step of the design method provides a list of requirements and guidelines that the design must meet. Building code regulations are analysed, but also regulations for the well-being of animals are studied. With these regulations a design has been made that fulfils these regulations and can be used to answer the research questions. To answer the first sub-question, how to cover the energy supply and demand of the design, building code regulations of importance were determined. Dutch building regulations state that a design should comply with heat resistance values of building elements (thermal shell). Also, the design should comply with an energy performance coefficient (EPC) that determines the energy use of a design with a certain functionality. For this project the functionality is said to be a health area due to the many animal health care facilities in the design. Since Iran is on the most seismic active regions in the world attention is given to the bearing construction of the design. The design is equipped with a bearing construction from engineered wood. In terms of strength and cost-effectivenes this proved to be one of the best solutions. Furthermore, renewable energy sources that are available in Iran are investigated to determine the possibilities for the design. Due to the enormous number of sunshine hours the design will be implemented with photovoltaic solar panels to produce electricity. Thermal energy will be used to provide the building with heating and cooling by means of a geothermal heat pump. This all results in a design that consumes an average of 36000kWh a month. Categories that are major contributors of energy consumption are domestic hot water and fans, pumps and controls, which provide the building with heated water and ventilation. With the use of the photovoltaic solar panels the design can produce 18000kWh a month during the summer. The energy performance coefficient is determined to be 0.85, where the building code regulation requires a value of 0.8. To answer the second sub-question an environmental life cycle assessment and an economic life cycle assessment have been performed. The goal of the environmental life cycle assessment was to give insight in the potential environmental impact of building materials used in the design of the animal hospital and wildlife-rehabilitation centre. The system boundary used for this assessment was a cradle to gate analysis, which includes the extraction, the manufacturing process and the transportation of the building materials to the construction site. To determine the potential environmental impact of the building materials four impact categories were chosen. With the developed design the quantity of building materials was calculated and the transportation distance of the building materials to the construction site measured. The life cycle impact assessment was carried out by GaBi 6.115, which is a software application that is used to determine the potential environmental impact. From this assessment it could be concluded that the ground floor of the design had the highest impact on the four impact categories. This could be related to the building materials concrete and linoleum (used for flooring), which proved to be contributing the most to the four impact categories. The goal of the economic life cycle assessment was to determine the overall costs of the building materials that are used to construct the animal hospital and wildlife-rehabilitation centre. For this assessment it was chosen to use the Iranian currency as well as the Dutch currency, because Stichting Simba aims at attracting investors from Europe and Iran to make the project a reality. The assessment showed that the building materials concrete, window and frame and door and frame are the costliest for the design. The total costs of the building materials of the animal hospital and wildlife-rehabilitation centre are estimated at €582,152.80. The third research question has not been answered in this research study. It is therefore recommended that this analysis should be done in a later stage. It is expected to be of great importance to assess the quantity of water and the quality of water needed. Techniques on how to collect water, store water and preserve or reuse water should be investigated to provide Stichting Simba with valuable information of the possibilities for the animal and wildlife-rehabilitation centre, as it is assessed that water is a scarcity in Iran and precipitation is absent in the summer months.
Item Type:Essay (Bachelor)
Faculty:ET: Engineering Technology
Subject:56 civil engineering
Programme:Civil Engineering BSc (56952)
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