University of Twente Student Theses


The Integration of Circular Economy into Municipal Solid Waste Management in Metro City, Indonesia : Challenges and Environmental Opportunities

Pribadi, F.S. (2017) The Integration of Circular Economy into Municipal Solid Waste Management in Metro City, Indonesia : Challenges and Environmental Opportunities.

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Abstract:Increasing generation of solid waste is one of the most serious problems in the world. A solid waste generation has a strong relationship with major environmental issues such as climate change, resource depletion and ecosystem damage. Therefore, solid waste must be managed to reduce the negative impacts produced by solid waste. However, many studies revealed that adequate solid waste management (SWM) with the current approach is costly. For municipalities in developing countries such as Metro City, which was used as a representative case in Indonesia, the delivery of adequate SWM with the current approach is hardly achievable. Therefore, another approach such as the implementation of reduce, reuse and recycle (3Rs) operations need to be explored. As part of such exploration, studies have reported that the involvement of the private sector in the SWM can be a suitable option in countries like Indonesia. Moreover, the 3Rs are in the core of the Circular Economy (CE) principles which general purpose is the elimination of waste generation by emphasizing on retaining the materials value through collaborative schemes between private and public sectors. The intention to explore CE in connection with SWM exposed the need to have a suitable framework to integrate CE principles within SWM, in Metro. Therefore the main goal of the current study is to determine the suitable framework of CE integration in SWM of Metro City. The current practice of SWM in Metro, as well as the challenges to integrating CE in SWM in Metro, were firstly analyzed. By doing this, several problems were identified which originally come from the poor performance of sustainable SWM aspects. However, well-established legal frameworks and community willingness to participate brought the idea of a positive supportive setting to enable sustainable SWM. While the relatively small economic scale of recycling solid waste, the lack of access to the capital of informal actors, the low technological base of solid waste management, high transaction costs, poorly defined regulations and lack of actual citizens participation are among the most important challenges to integrate CE into SWM in the Metro City context. To overcome these challenges, a framework to increase the role of informal sectors, enabling Public-Private Partnership by involving informal sectors and the municipality to work together is proposed for Metro. Additionally, this study also investigated the environmental opportunities that can be obtained from CE integration in SWM. By applying Waste Absorption Footprint methodology, it was estimated that current SWM activities, i.e. collection, transportation and disposal, emit 24,145.90-ton CO2-eq per year which corresponds to a WAFCO2 as big as 100 m2 per capita. However, as an alternative scenario, it was also calculated the WAFC02 as CE was already integrated to SWM which resulted in a reduction of 14,743,935.69-ton CO2-eq per year (WAFCO2 40 m2 per capita).
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:43 environmental science
Programme:Environmental and Energy Management MSc (69319)
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