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Optimizing Low Dimensional Carbon-Based Nanomaterials For Seawater Desalination: Investigating the Viability of Graphene-Oxide TiO2-modified Activated Carbon Composite Electrodes for Water Demineralization

Kleinhoven, F.T.H. (2019) Optimizing Low Dimensional Carbon-Based Nanomaterials For Seawater Desalination: Investigating the Viability of Graphene-Oxide TiO2-modified Activated Carbon Composite Electrodes for Water Demineralization.

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Abstract:Major cities worldwide increasingly depend on desalinated water. Due to the chemical processes involved in water desalination, however, the hardness of the water remains relatively uncontrolled throughout the development of desalination techniques. For instance, in Singapore, the majority of desalination plants are designed to deliver water with a hardness of approximately 80-120 mg/L CaCO3 , whereas ideally the concentration should be below 60 mg/L. In developing countries in the same region, facilities management and citizens often fail to gain access to the equipment necessary to measure the hardness of the water. Elevated levels of calcium, magnesium, and barium levels in potable water might cause health challenges such as increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, growth retardation in infants and reproductive failure in adults. Increased hardness of water could pose challenges to the environment due to elevated levels of nitrogenous species. The presence of these ions also correlates to increased levels of soil and water pollution caused by the use of fertilizers in agriculture. The challenge being addressed in this research is that desalination methods often only select for co-ions, and no free metals in the form of cations. This research aims to experiment with capacitive deionization to quantify to what extent CDI can reduce the number of single cations in potable water.
Item Type:Essay (Bachelor)
Clients:
Public Utilities Board, Singapore, Singapore
Faculty:EEMCS: Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science
Subject:51 materials science
Programme:Technology and Liberal Arts & Sciences BSc (50427)
Link to this item:http://purl.utwente.nl/essays/78833
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