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Societal acceptance of alternative bio-energy sources and technology, Case of biomass briquettes acceptance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Shaidi Elifadhili, Vincent (2019) Societal acceptance of alternative bio-energy sources and technology, Case of biomass briquettes acceptance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

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Abstract:The world is in a transition process to renewable energy in response to climate change and global warming. Once among the factors hindering the transition is social acceptance to the alternative energy sources. Bioenergy is one among the renewable sources with high potential and is a major energy source in developing countries. Biomass is used in traditional cooking methods that have significant environmental impacts like deforestation and health. In response to this, one among the promoted alternative is biomass briquettes in cooking. Though it is promoted in many countries, its adaptation has been slow as charcoal/firewood still occupies a large market share with a small percentage taken by briquettes. The aim of this study is to understand the challenge of social acceptance to sustainable bio-energy sources, particularly biomass briquettes as a cooking energy source instead of charcoal in developing countries’ through analysis of Tanzania social acceptance to use of biomass briquettes as cooking fuel, with Dar es Salaam community as the case study. The methods used were literature review, interviews with briquettes suppliers and Dar es Salaam community survey. The analysis was done from three perspectives namely theory of social acceptance, theory of strategic niche management and theory of Bottom of the pyramid. In this study 2 large producers, 10 small producer’s and 369 respondents shared their perspective and views. The study found that the briquettes sector is being poorly addressed in the national policies although it is highlighted endorsed by some political leaders. There is a good to neutral acceptance from Dar es Salaam community, with a majority of them having heard/seen it but never used it. For those who have used it have positive feedback with regard to briquettes, which could justify the positive to neutral feedback from community members who heard about it. They perceived it to be useful, easy to use and has fitted well to community cooking. The major challenge hindering large community use to briquettes is un-accessibility of briquettes. This is caused by challenges in production and distribution from the supplier side due to underdeveloped distribution channels, network, and support given to suppliers. Further factors which affect the acceptance to briquettes are economical (reduction of expenditure and affordability), awareness, environmental concerns, use in existing stove, and performance of briquettes mostly burning for a long time, annoyance from ash and storage. This study recommends improvements of policies and incentives to be put in place for supporting small producers, consolidation of supplier’s networks in order to enable learning, adaptation, and resources gathering. Besides, it recommends the integration of briquettes to the existing charcoal distribution network so as to expand the network and improve distribution. Lastly is expanding of the briquettes value chain by producing other products such as biochar and briquettes with different properties for different uses.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:43 environmental science, 70 social sciences in general, 71 sociology, 85 business administration, organizational science
Programme:Environmental and Energy Management MSc (69319)
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