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Outcome evaluation of climate adaptation measures implemented in Durban City, South Africa

Yasini, Mulimba (2020) Outcome evaluation of climate adaptation measures implemented in Durban City, South Africa.

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Abstract:The impact of climate change such as severe storms, flooding, extreme temperature, and increased drought have negative consequences on the lives and wellbeing of the communities. The impacts are expected to be severe for cities in the Global South with high social vulnerability due to poor socio-economic conditions and physical infrastructure. In response to climate change impacts and high social vulnerability, the cities in the Global South have developed and implemented climate adaptation measures. However, a review of the literature suggests that few studies have been undertaken in the Global South to evaluate the outcomes of climate adaptation measures in terms of equity and reducing social vulnerability. Therefore, a study was undertaken in Durban, South Africa to establish whether the outcomes of the climate adaptation measures contributed to reducing or exacerbating social vulnerability. The study involved an assessment of the spatial distribution of social vulnerability to identify the vulnerable communities; mapping the spatial distribution of the adaptation measures to establish whether they were accordingly, equitably distributed; and an assessment of the consequences of the adaptation measures to establish the effectiveness, co-benefits and the risk of maladaptation. The results show a very high social vulnerability for densely populated areas (wards) located closer to the city center, which mainly comprised informal settlements and former township areas; and a high social vulnerability for the areas located in the periphery of the city, which are mostly rural. Further, four of the five projects evaluated were generally equitably distributed as they targeted areas with high social vulnerability. The project which was not equitably distributed mostly targeted areas with low social vulnerability. In terms of effectiveness, four of the five projects achieved the objectives, which contributed to increasing the adaptive capacity and reducing the exposure of the vulnerable community. One project was not effective in reducing the exposure of the vulnerable community to flooding as indicated in its objective. All the projects generated co-benefits which contributed to increasing the adaptive capacity, and to a less extent reducing the sensitivity of the community. However, a high risk of maladaptation was observed in one project, which focused on reducing the exposure of the vulnerable community to flooding. Moderate risk was observed in two projects, which focused on reducing sensitivity. Further, the results indicate maladaptation outcomes for two projects related to the increase in the cost of land closer to the project area and the negative effects of effluents from solid waste storage facilities which were located closer to houses and communal ablution blocks.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:ITC: Faculty of Geo-information Science and Earth Observation
Programme:Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation MSc (75014)
Link to this item:https://purl.utwente.nl/essays/85180
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