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“I will do it later.”: The association between momentary procrastination and state personality

Arndt, Laura (2021) “I will do it later.”: The association between momentary procrastination and state personality.

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Abstract:Background: Procrastination is a common phenomenon in students and personality seems to be an associated factor. Previous studies have investigated the association between academic procrastination and personality. So far, most of this research is based on trait measurements, but recent approaches highlight the importance of understanding short-term fluctuations in monetary procrastination and personality. Objective: The present study aims to investigate the fluctuation and association between traits and states of academic procrastination behaviour and personality (neuroticism and conscientiousness) in the daily life of university students. Method. An online experience sampling method study with 26 university students (M age = 20.4) was conducted over two weeks. The NEO-FFI-3 and the API were utilized to measure trait neuroticism, trait conscientiousness and trait academic procrastination. For state measurements, a questionnaire composed of six adapted items of the NEO-FFI-3 and one adapted item of the API was completed three times per day over 14 days by the participants. Results: Trait associations: A moderate positive (r = .438) association was found between trait procrastination and trait neuroticism and a strong negative (r = -.762) association between trait procrastination and trait conscientiousness. State associations: The results of Linear Mixed Model (LMM) analyses revealed a weak positive (ß = .26) association between state procrastination and state neuroticism as well as a weak negative (ß = -.17) association between state procrastination and state conscientiousness at the between-person level. Further LMM revealed a moderate positive (ß = .35) association between state procrastination and state neuroticism as well as a weak negative (ß = -.18) association between state procrastination and state conscientiousness at the within-person level. Additional analysis showed high variability in state procrastination, neuroticism and conscientiousness within individuals. Conclusion. The present study revealed that in general participants higher on neuroticism showed higher procrastination behaviour and participants higher on conscientiousness tend to procrastinate less. Similar associations in direction but weaker in magnitude on the state between-person level were found in the study period of 14 days. Further, this study gave insight into how procrastination, neuroticism and conscientiousness fluctuate over two weeks. Revealing that especially procrastination behaviour fluctuated widely within a person. The current study underlines the importance of knowing the differences between trait and state measurements and that variability between and within persons are two independent sources of variability that show different things. Hence, to expand the theoretical knowledge and to gain a holistic understanding of procrastination and personality, it is necessary to consult measurements on all three levels (trait level, between-person state level and within-person state level).
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Programme:Psychology MSc (66604)
Link to this item:http://purl.utwente.nl/essays/87992
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