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The Longitudinal Relationship of Depressive Symptoms and Mental Well-Being : The Role of General Self-Efficacy as a Buffer? An Experience Sampling Study Among University Students

Kohlhoff, Martje (2021) The Longitudinal Relationship of Depressive Symptoms and Mental Well-Being : The Role of General Self-Efficacy as a Buffer? An Experience Sampling Study Among University Students.

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Abstract:Objective: The two-continua model proposes mental health as a complete state by considering psychopathology and mental well-being as being related but distinct constructs. While previous research has proven the model in cross-sectional studies between persons, there is less knowledge about the relationship between psychopathology and well-being within persons over time. In addition, recent studies have shown the potential of general self- efficacy to buffer against stressors and raised the interest to examine its protective mechanisms within the two-continua model. Methods: This study used experience sampling data from 25 university students (aged 19–32 years) reporting on 905 everyday-life situations over the course of two weeks (April 06 – April 19, 2020). Linear mixed models were used to examine the relationship between state depression and state mental well-being between and within persons. General self-efficacy was examined as a possible moderator of the overall association. Results: Findings revealed a moderate negative correlation between state depression and state mental well-being both between (β = –.386, p < .001) and within persons (β = –.543, p < .001). General self-efficacy did not significantly moderate the overall association. However, follow-up case analyses of single individuals with higher vs. lower levels on general self-efficacy showed tendencies towards the hypothesized protective role, that is, the association between depression and well-being was weaker for people high on general self-efficacy. Conclusion: This study gave a first insight into the two-continua model not only holding on the between-person but also on the within-person level. Study implications are discussed in three main contexts: promoting further within-person research of complete mental health, implementing knowledge of the two-continua model within persons in clinical settings, and further investigating protective factors for complete mental health in daily life, for example, by implementing interventions based on experience sampling method.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:77 psychology
Programme:Psychology MSc (66604)
Link to this item:http://purl.utwente.nl/essays/88011
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