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A comparative study of spatial data collection methods for informal settlement land tenure mapping in gobabis, Namibia

Ngutjinazo, Nokokure (2021) A comparative study of spatial data collection methods for informal settlement land tenure mapping in gobabis, Namibia.

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Abstract:The Fit-for-purpose land administration approach provides flexible solutions in the way spatial data is captured, and they are inclusive, participatory, affordable, reliable, attainable, and upgradable. FFP land administration consists of the spatial, legal, and institutional framework. The spatial framework mainly provides information on how land is occupied. It is also the foundation for land administration functions of recording and managing land tenure, assessing valuation, and managing land. As part of the spatial framework, a variety of cadastral mapping methods enabled by technological and technical advances have been used in land registration projects worldwide. Each method has its own characteristics, requirements, and outcomes, making them unique. Th conventional methods are regarded to be expensive, time-consuming and have high accuracy requirements. Therefore, they do not accommodate the needs of developing countries and communities living in informal settlements. To meet the needs of the developing countries, alternative systems and approaches have been developed over the years, including the development of innovative land tools. However, there is limited studies done on comparing the innovative spatial data collection methods against conventional methods. There is also a lack of criteria for selecting spatial data collection methods for a specific country context. This study carries out a comparative research of the new its4land innovative methods, SmartSkeMa and Automatic Feature Extraction to identify indicators and use the indicators to compare the suitability of their suitability in Namibia. The research objective is to compare innovative methods against conventional methods. To meet the objective the research adopted a case study approach of the qualitative method. The research was conducted in Freedom Square, Gobabis. Semi-structured interviews, ranking questionnaires and parcel mapping were used to obtain primary data. In addition, aerial image, layout plan and reference points were obtained as secondary data. Data from the semi-structured interviews helped in identifying the methods used in Namibia, their characteristics and the actors involved. The ranking questionnaire provided the indicators which were used for comparing the innovative methods against the conventional methods. The parcel mapping was used in SmartSkeMa and the output was overlayed on a layout plan of Freedom Square. Automatic Feature Extraction used the aerial image for boundary delineation. The results revealed that the spatial data collection methods used in Namibia are conventional and they are supported by the legal framework. The legal framework does not support the use of photogrammetry and the UAV regulations are currently a challenge. The indicators which were ranked as the most important when selecting spatial data methods were, implementation, compliance with common standards, accuracy, and reliability. These indicators were used for comparison and the results showed that the main similarities between the methods are that they involve community members. The main difference is the data collection procedures because innovative methods make use of GIS experts, and the conventional methods require surveyors. Further, the research identified that the innovative methods do not comply with the legal framework in terms of accuracy, and the data collection procedures. The accuracy requirements are high and are based on fixed boundaries whereas with the innovative methods, general boundaries are used. However, there is potential for innovative methods to enhance the conventional methods especially regarding time and data processing. Both the innovative tools could be useful as the first step to data collection for local authorities who do not have any spatial data on the informal settlements. These methods could also be used in combination with the conventional methods, whereby surveyors could improve the accuracy of the data obtained at a later stage.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:ITC: Faculty of Geo-information Science and Earth Observation
Programme:Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation MSc (75014)
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