University of Twente Student Theses


Major Depressive Disorder, Hypersomnia and Loneliness in the Context of the Government Imposed Curfew

Krastev, M.P. (2022) Major Depressive Disorder, Hypersomnia and Loneliness in the Context of the Government Imposed Curfew.

[img] PDF
Abstract:Background. As COVID-19 pandemic began in March 2020 different measures were implemented in order to prevent spreading of the virus. As a consequence of these measures, our daily routines have drastically altered, resulting in growing stress levels and giving rise to increased uncertainty, loneliness and in some cases depressive disorders, such as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A frequently occurring symptom of MDD is sleep disturbance. However, studies in the context of the pandemic are generally focused on insomnia and not on hypersomnia. Additionally, research has found a correlation between stress and loneliness. Therefore, the current study evaluates the symptoms of MDD, hypersomnia and loneliness in relation to the curfew that was implemented in the Netherlands between January 28, 2021 and April 28, 2021. Methods. The study type was cross-sectional. Three questionnaires were implemented in order to measure the three variables: Epworth Sleepiness Scale for hypersomnia, Beck Depression Inventory for MDD and UCLA Loneliness Scale. Each questionnaire inquired for three time frames: before the curfew, during the curfew and after the curfew. Results. 70 participants completed the survey. The one-way repeated measures ANOVA analysis indicated significant differences between all three variables, but not within each condition. There was a significant difference between MDD levels before the curfew compared to MDD levels during, and after the curfew. Moreover, there is a significant difference between hypersomnia after the curfew compared to hypersomnia before the curfew and hypersomnia during the curfew. Furthermore, there is a difference in loneliness during the curfew compared to loneliness before and after the curfew, but not to the extent as the previous two variables. Conclusion. People exhibited different levels of MDD, hypersomnia and loneliness in the different time frames. However, those differences cannot be attributed simply to the curfew. One of the possible explanations for that is the fact that the study is cross-sectional and not longitudinal. Further research is necessary to investigate how a measure such as a curfew can have an impact on MDD, hypersomnia and loneliness.
Item Type:Essay (Bachelor)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:77 psychology
Programme:Psychology BSc (56604)
Link to this item:
Export this item as:BibTeX
HTML Citation
Reference Manager


Repository Staff Only: item control page