University of Twente Student Theses


Coral Reef Rugosity and Coral Biodiversity Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Fuad, Mochamad Arif Zainul (2010) Coral Reef Rugosity and Coral Biodiversity Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

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Abstract:Rugosity is a simple measurement of the surface roughness that has been used routinely by coral reef biologists. Areas of high rugosity allow corals to attach and grow on higher substrata not influenced by sand and sediment movement along the bottom. Rugosity of coral reef also reflects the effect of disturbance and stressors on the reef. The aims of this research were to asses the coral reef rugosity in the different environmental condition, the pattern of coral genera biodiversity, and the relationships between rugosity and reef corals biodiversity. The reef corals biodiversity data collection was conducted by Line Intercept Transect. The rugosity of coral reef was measured by carefully laying a steel chain to the reef surface. A rugosity index, C, is calculated as C=1-d/l. where d is horizontal distance covered by chain that follows the contour of the reef and l is its length with fully extended. Comparison of rugosity index between fishing dominated area and tourism dominated area was analysed by independent t-test. Coral genera biodiversity pattern was analyzed using Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN). The relationships between rugosity index and coral biodiversity were analysed using correlation test, linear regression analysis, and second order polynomial regression analysis. A total 44 coral genera were found in the Bunaken National Park and the average of live coral cover is 46%. Porites is the dominant coral genera in the study area. Coral genera can be distinguished in four groups based on its occurrence and cover. An independent t-tes revealed that there was no significant difference between coral reef rugosity index in Bunaken Island and Tombariri. A percent live coral cover is the variable that has highest correlation with coral reef rugosity and then followed by genera richness, Shannon diversity index, and evenness. The highest coefficient of determination of linear regression was found in the linear regression analysis between rugosity index and coral cover (r2=0.321). Tombariri has higher coefficient of determination of linear regression (r2=0.526) than Bunakan Island (r2=0.296). None of second order polynomial regression was significant. Therefore linear regression model can better explain the variation of percent live coral cover, genera richness, Shannon diversity index, and evenness rather than a second order polynomial regression model, at least in the Bunaken National Park. However rugosity index can only explain very low variation of genera richness, diversity index and evenness. Keywords: Coral, Coral reef, Rugosity, Biodiversity, Coral genera composition, TWINSPAN, Disturbance, Tourism activities, Fishing activities, Bunaken National Park
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:ITC: Faculty of Geo-information Science and Earth Observation
Programme:Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation MSc (75014)
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