University of Twente Student Theses


Trust in Artificial Intelligence? The role of mental models, openness, and anthropomorphism in human-agent teams

Graesel, H.S. (2022) Trust in Artificial Intelligence? The role of mental models, openness, and anthropomorphism in human-agent teams.

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Abstract:Background. The application of artificial intelligence (AI) as teammates has become increasingly relevant, making humans more dependent on effective use and collaboration. Various studies identified trust as a fundamental dimension to effective collaboration, which is suggested to be enhanced by peoples’ accurate mental models of AI, openness towards novelty, and perceived anthropomorphism. Objective. This study aims to explore how people respond to different AI agents with a focus on mental models, openness, anthropomorphism, and the calibration of trust. Task and Procedure. An experiment that included several tasks, such as self-report questionnaires and fictional scenarios was designed to assess participants’ prior mental models of AI, openness, perceived anthropomorphism, and trust in AI agents. Particularly, participants were randomly assigned to four AI agent conditions which they evaluated in follow-up questionnaires. Findings. Linear and multiple regression analyses revealed that mental model congruence and openness did not predict the level of initial trust towards an AI agent. Furthermore, panned comparison analysis showed that the level of trust did not depend on the AI embodiment condition a participant was in. Conclusion. The findings suggest that the assessment of mental models and the appropriate calibration of trust remains a challenge and needs to be further investigated. This study presents critical implications of experimental design choices and measurement of mental models, anthropomorphism, and trust in human-agent teams.
Item Type:Essay (Bachelor)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:54 computer science, 70 social sciences in general, 71 sociology, 77 psychology
Programme:Psychology BSc (56604)
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