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Analysis of the relation between land rights and environmental measures in protected areas in Tanzania: the case of Saadani National Park

Lara, Libia Yelena Romero (2010) Analysis of the relation between land rights and environmental measures in protected areas in Tanzania: the case of Saadani National Park.

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Abstract:The establishment of protected areas is a worldwide practice that intends to defend biodiversity and wildlife from human development. Such a policy tends to neglect rights of local communities, mainly in the practice of national parks. This is a restrictive measure that imposes difficult and most of the time conflicting effects to the people settled around. Considering that Tanzania is a country that has widely embraced this approach, the aim of this study was to analyse the effect relation between the establishment of Saadani National Park, the most recent gazetted national park, and the diverse rights in the neighbouring area hold by local communities. For this aim, data was gathered in the villages of Saadani, Uvinje and Bujuni as well as diverse secondary sources. As a way of a general understanding of the facts, the conceptual framework DPSIR was adapted to the context of this research and used to categorise and identify the most relevant elements that are related and somehow influencing the system establishment of SANAPA-people living inside or near outside the park. Also conceiving modelling and analysis of perceptions as a good means to detect differences in views of different stakeholders related to an issue, thus supporting the recognition of existing conflict between them, in this research DANA software was used as a computer-based tool for performing such analysis. Results of DPSIR framework allowed getting an overview of the ‘system’ such as the influences of certain policies, the character of the economy of the area: mostly based on agriculture, livestock keeping and finishing; the presence of a growing population that surrounds the park together with an increased limitations in livelihoods and boundaries uncertainty, among others. Having these results it was possible to derive indicators that would help in understanding and detecting possible sources of conflicts. Complementing these results, DANA analysis revealed that the stakeholders only diverge in the actions that should be taken, not in the goals for the ‘system’. From the analysis of inferred best and worst strategies in DANA, it was possible to identify a conflict in relation to illegal access to the park by local communities, which in the view of villagers should increase while for TANAPA it should reduce. Interestingly, the worst strategy for villagers was identified as ‘keeping things as they are’: unfair compensation, loss of rights to land and to land resources and community displacement. With this knowledge, it was possible to propose some instruments to be included in the implementation of SANAPA to reduce the existing conflicts observed. Outputs of the DPSIR framework with the modelling of perceptions with DANA were conceived as complementary in allowing the analysis going from general to more specific issues and allowing crosscheck of the results for the sake of validity. It is important also to consider that due to the basis on causal relations that both methodologies have, gathering considerable data is needed to provide reliable outputs. Stakeholders ideally should be involved in the process of analysis validating the results. In general, this approach seems to be consistent and provides a potential applicability in diverse issues of land administration studies. KEYWORDS: Conflicts, DANA, DPSIR, environmental measures, national parks, perceptions graphs, SANAPA, policy instruments.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:ITC: Faculty of Geo-information Science and Earth Observation
Programme:Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation MSc (75014)
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