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Analysis of land use and environmental change triggered by decentralization policy in Samarinda, Indonesia

Simanullang, Tiur Hotdelima (2011) Analysis of land use and environmental change triggered by decentralization policy in Samarinda, Indonesia.

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Abstract:Implementation of decentralization in Samarinda has triggered the urban growth and expansion of mining activities in the city. These two factors have caused changes on land use/cover in the city. Land use/cover change is a direct driver of environmental change and affects ecosystem services. Ecosystems provide numerous services for human life and the land use/cover changes cause degradation of ecosystem capabilities to fulfil human needs. This study aims to analyze how land use/cover changes triggered by decentralization policy affect environmental degradation in Samarinda, Indonesia. To achieve the objective, two steps of analysis were conducted: 1) analysis land use-land cover change; 2) analysis of environmental degradation as a result land use – land cover changes based on ecosystem services concepts. First, multi temporal analysis was carried out to detect changes on land use-land cover. Change detection of land use maps 2000 and 2006 was performed to assess the land use change during the period. As a comparison to land use maps 2000 and 2006, the land use/cover mapping was performed using Landsat 2002 and Aster 2009 to assess the land use/cover change between 2002 and 2009. Post classification change detection was employed to analyze the change from 2002 to 2009. The two different periods of change detection analysis resulted similar trends revealing that built-up and mining areas increased while natural lands decreased over time. From 2000 to 2006, the total area of built-up area increased in size from 6653 ha to 11144 ha representing 6.38 % increase. Mining area also increased by about 3.38 % from 333 ha in 2000 to 2716 ha in 2006. In contrast, the area covered by shrub decreased 9.24% from 41571 ha in 2000 to 35061 ha in 2006. Mix vegetation also decreased from 11657 ha to 11144 ha, the reduction was 512 ha representing 0.73% of the total study area. The other land uses more or less were stable during the time periods. Second, analysis of environmental degradation based on ecosystem services concepts was performed using Spatial Multi Criteria Evaluation (SMCE) and Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis. Identification of important services was conducted by distributing questionnaire to local people in the study area. Eight ecosystem services were identified by local people in the study area including purification of air, prevention of floods, provisioning of foods, recreation, water resources, provisioning of fuelwoods, provisioning of timber and provisioning of medicinal plants. Assessing and mapping of the important ecosystem services were created to obtain land use/cover valuation maps for each ecosystem services where the assessment was based on land use/cover capabilities to provide the services. GIS techniques were applied to map the ecosystem services value. Spatial Multi Criteria Evaluation was applied to assess the total ecosystem services value for the eight ecosystem services. From the total value of the ecosystem services, forest and mix vegetation received the highest value, followed by agricultural land, shrub, river and swamp respectively, while built-up and mining area did not have a value at all. GIS analysis was performed to evaluate the environmental change from 2000 to 2006. The analysis revealed that environmental degradations occurred in the study area due to land use/cover changes at that time periods. Conversion of mix vegetation to mining and built-up area resulted in a very high level of environment degradation in area of 507 ha due to the loss of the capabilities of the ecosystem to provide the eight ecosystem services in the study area. Conversion of agricultural land to built-up and mining area caused the decrease of the ecosystem services capabilities in a high level in area of 664 ha, and conversion of shrub to mining and built-up area caused ecosystem degradation in a medium level in area of 5849 ha. Key words : land use-land cover change, environmental change, ecosystem services, GIS analysis, Spatial Multi Criteria Evaluation
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:ITC: Faculty of Geo-information Science and Earth Observation
Programme:Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation MSc (75014)
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