University of Twente Student Theses


Impact of locational factors on variation in inter and intra urban slum pattern and deprivation : the case of Kisumu-Kenya

Uwanziga, Liliane Mupende (2011) Impact of locational factors on variation in inter and intra urban slum pattern and deprivation : the case of Kisumu-Kenya.

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Abstract:The increasing rate of urbanization continues to pose a great challenge in the less developed countries. As their urban population grows, the number of slums often notably increases. While this research acknowledges the dynamics that influenced the growth and pattern of slums in Kisumu Town Kenya; most importantly it draws attention to the impact of key locational factors and the role of policy on inter and intra variation in slum pattern and deprivation. An extended slum belt exists along the eastern part of the municipality within which eight distinct sub-locations are found. The study focuses on two of these sub-locations-Manyatta “A” and Nyalenda “A”. Three key locational factors were examined namely tenure, proximity to a major water source and availability of road infrastructure. In exploring the influence of these factors on slum pattern and deprivation, several methods were applied. Satellite image analysis gave insight into the slum pattern through the combined evaluation of computed spatial metrics and extracted housing typologies: family housing, rental housing and mixed use housing. The Contagion index of 16% and 41% indicate more disaggregation of patches for Manyatta ‘A’ than Nyalenda ‘A’ respectively. The Patch density and Edge density values function as expressions of spatial heterogeneity and indicate dispersed patch distribution in Manyatta ‘A’ contrary to Nyalenda ‘A’ which is clumped. This supported the classification of slum growth into three categories: expansion, densification and intensification. The variation in slum structure is likewise evident in the deprivation levels. A composite “slum index” was also derived from household survey data, providing a unique approach for assessing deprivation from the perspective of an areas level of “slumness”. The slum index for Manyatta ‘A’ and Nyalenda ‘A’ show a slight variation at 2.35 and 2.25 respectively; however greater intra variation is evident with the slum index ranging from 1.69-2.79. Analysis into the association between tenure as a locational factor and the individual indicators that constitute the slum index confirmed a relationship with the indicators. Overall indication was that renters are worse off in terms of lack of access to water, poor housing quality and overcrowding, but not in the case of access to sanitation and electricity where no association was identified. The results indicate that indeed variation in development patterns and levels of deprivation are evident and are associated to the identified locational factors. These effects are further accentuated by policy implication or lack thereof. This is evident in the failure in enforcement of the existing zoning guidelines resulting in 74% and 93% of unauthorized housing units in Manyatta ‘A’ and Nyalenda ‘A’ respectively. Key words: Locational factors, inter and intra variation, slum pattern, spatial metrics, slum index, “slumness”, deprivation.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:ITC: Faculty of Geo-information Science and Earth Observation
Programme:Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation MSc (75014)
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