University of Twente Student Theses


Evaluating the characteristics of geo ICT-enabled intermediaries in transparency initiatives

Kurniawan, Muhammad (2013) Evaluating the characteristics of geo ICT-enabled intermediaries in transparency initiatives.

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Abstract:While the emergence of third parties (intermediaries) with the use of geo ICT are enriching the way of transparency conducted, there is still little research which investigates how they face challenges around transparency realm. This research aims to identify and evaluate the characteristics of geo ICT-enabled intermediaries in transparency initiatives. The identification which seeks who/what the geo ICT-enabled intermediaries and their characteristics leads to examination of 19 documented transparency initiatives where the geo ICT used. A matrix is created to obtain information about characteristics of the case and the intermediaries. This matrix then used to build a classification of characteristics attached to geo ICT-enabled intermediaries. The classification subsequently guides the evaluation task which investigates the citizens reporting system of municipality of Enschede as the empirical case to study. The case study approach employs interview, web content analysis, and direct observation in collecting empirical data. In that case, changes related transparency and the extent of geo ICT-enabled intermediaries contribute to the changes are investigated. The evaluation of contribution is assessed in term of effectiveness, efficiency and citizens’ participation in managing public space. The data obtained indicates that there are changes in transparency. The information about complaints/defective reports and the resolutions in public space is not available before the involvement of intermediary. After the involvement, the intermediary platform discloses the information on internet based map and it is accessible for public. The involvement has contributed to the operational processes which are: - It is a way to outsource the monitoring of defects or problems which municipality does not need to do it themselves; - It can avoid duplication; -It saves time in finding the location; and -It can take the citizens closer to what government has done. On the other hand there are also unexpected changes which are: -The increase of overall number of reports received by the municipality including trivial complaints; -The possibility of the emergence of the third parties that take opportunities from the disclosed information. Besides, there are contested views about future involvement of the third parties that may potentially change the transparency. The results are then discussed in term of theoretical building on transparency and technological intermediation. The involvement of the intermediary has increased transparency since it has provided information that was unavailable before. The crowd as the source of information disclosed has been recognized in helping the municipality. The technological intermediary is also an alternative means for citizens and can enhance citizens’ capability to monitor government. However, the intermediation which aimed to connect citizens surrounding the problems reported has no evidence. Although the information disclosure provides incentive towards the municipality through reputation mechanism, it does not trigger citizens to make a movement to pressure municipality. Instead, it potentially creates links with other parties which take opportunities from information disclosure. In the case study, the use of geo ICT has supported to handle problems which have spatial components and to customize data which can ease the users to comprehend the information disclosed. Keywords: geo ICT-enabled intermediary, transparency
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:ITC: Faculty of Geo-information Science and Earth Observation
Programme:Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation MSc (75014)
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