University of Twente Student Theses


Endpoint-Only-Labelling versus Full-Labelling : The Effect of Scale Design on ESM Measures

Haase, Lorena (2023) Endpoint-Only-Labelling versus Full-Labelling : The Effect of Scale Design on ESM Measures.

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Abstract:Background: ESM is a research method growing in popularity as it can reliably assess various momentary processes such as emotion dynamics which can forecast mental well-being. Studies with retrospective questionnaires have found that when endpoint-only-labelling and fulllabelling are compared, they can show different study outcomes. Yet the influence of scale design on results of ESM studies has not been investigated although it is important to correctly measure the concept of emotional variability, which is measured by assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA). If labelling influences scores, this would lead to different conclusions about psychosocial processes. Thus, the current study aimed at examining the effect of full-labelling compared to endpoint-only-labelling on NA and PA measures of mean, distribution, and emotional variability. Method: Participants were gathered by convenience sampling. As a study method ESM was used, where participants were prompted to fill out ten questionnaires per day for seven consecutive days in the app Ethica. The questionnaires measured NA and PA. Linear mixed model analyses with condition as a fixed effect, scores of either NA or PA as dependent variable, and participant as random effect were used to examine differences between mean measures of PA and NA. Differences between distributions were investigated by comparing the confidence intervals of kurtosis and skewness measurements. Finally, regression analyses with the within-person standard deviation of PA or NA as the dependent variable and condition as a predictor were carried out to examine group differences of emotional variability. Results: There was no significant difference between conditions for the mean of NA and PA, or emotional variability. Regarding distribution measures, the significant differences found between conditions were the skewness of PA (full-labelling = -0.25, 95% CI [-0.40, -0.09], endpoint-only-labelling = 0.08, 95% CI [-0.08, 0.16]) and kurtosis of NA (full-labelling = 2.24, 95% CI [1.93, 2.55], endpoint-only-labelling = 1.06, 95% CI [0.75, 1.37]). Conclusion: This study was the first to investigate the effect of scale design on ESM measures but as most differences between conditions were insignificant, endpoint-only-labelling seems to be a valid way of designing scales used in ESM studies. Nevertheless, the effect of scale design on ESM measures needs to be investigated more in future studies and whether the effect of habituation might be significant in that regard.
Item Type:Essay (Bachelor)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:77 psychology
Programme:Psychology BSc (56604)
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