University of Twente Student Theses


Does labelling matter? The effects of labels on responses : an experience sampling study

Suntrup, L. (2023) Does labelling matter? The effects of labels on responses : an experience sampling study.

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Abstract:Background: Previous studies examined the effect of labelling on responses regarding retrospective questionnaires. These studies have shown an association between response styles, such as the Extreme Response Style and the Net Acquiescence Response, and the effect of labelling on the responses. However, no study has investigated the effect of labelling in experience sampling method studies to date. Thus, this longitudinal study will further investigate the effect of fully-labelled compared to endpoint-only labelled Likert scales on response to individual negative affect item's distribution, mean leave, variability and inertia of affect. Method: The study applied a mobile phone experience sampling method. Convenience sampling was used to recruit the participants. These (N = 47) were divided into two conditions: the fully-labelled condition (N = 24) and the endpoint-only labelled condition (N = 23). Despite the condition, each individual was supposed to complete ten semi-randomly scheduled ESM questionnaires per day for seven days in total. To test the distribution, the skewness and kurtosis values were calculated. Individual univariate multilevel models were performed for each negative affect item to check the mean level. To account for variability, four fixed effect models were conducted. The inertia was investigated through a linear mixed model. Results: A significant interaction was found between the fully-labelled condition and anxiety t(1774)=31.82, p<.001 regarding inertia. The distribution and the mean level were comparable for the individual negative affect items. Also, the relationship between condition and variability was comparable for the items. Conclusion: The findings conclude that different labelling in experience sampling method studies does not impact participants' responses. Nevertheless, the interaction between the condition and inertia was partially supported for item anxiety. Here, the response styles could have had an impact on the outcome. All in all, the study provided new insights into the effect of labelling on ESM responses.
Item Type:Essay (Bachelor)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:77 psychology
Programme:Psychology BSc (56604)
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