University of Twente Student Theses


High-risk games and safety measures in the German Bundesliga: How do stadium attendants perceive their safety?

Dillhage, Leo (2023) High-risk games and safety measures in the German Bundesliga: How do stadium attendants perceive their safety?

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Abstract:Matchups in the German Bundesliga, categorized as high-risk (Red-light) games, represent the most hazardous circumstances for the clash between two clubs. The classification of these games indicates a highly increased potential of violent breakouts and physical altercations between fan-bases and the police. The following research project was therefore formed around the research question: “To what extent do the safety measurements, taken under the callout of a high-risk game in the German Bundesliga, influence the stadium attendant’s subjective perception of safety? “. The study followed a quantitative methodological design, based on a statistical analysis of survey data. The conduction of the survey was carried out in cooperation with FC Gelsenkirchen Schalke 04 e.V., which permitted to provide the questionnaire at its stadium, the Veltins-Arena. The survey was carried out prior to the high-risk game against Eintracht Frankfurt e.V. on the 33rd matchday of the 2022/2023 Bundesliga season, in order to investigate the stadium attendants' perception of safety. This setting was used exemplary for the investigation of such games called out as “high-risk”. Not only did this research project focus on examining the general safety perception of stadium attendants in high-risk games. But further, was the impact of the following safety measurements: “Increased police presence”, “Separation of fan-bases” and “Ban of alcoholic beverages” on the subjectively perceived safety of stadium visitors analyzed. These security measures are frequently implemented to ensure an orderly procedure of these matchups. The statistical analysis of the collected survey data could finally only find a minimal difference in how safe stadium attendants feel, in a high-risk game on the one hand and a game without any increased risk-potential (Green-light game) on the other hand. Whereas the conclusionary findings on the extent to which the three investigated safety measures are perceived as safety-increasing are significantly contrasting. Stadium attendants perceive an increased police presence and the separation of fan-bases as essential instruments to ensure their safety in high-risk games, but restricting alcoholic beverages in and surrounding the stadium encounters a strong rejection as a measurement to enhance security.
Item Type:Essay (Bachelor)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:88 social and public administration
Programme:Management Society and Technology BSc (56654)
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