University of Twente Student Theses


Just-in-time adaptive interventions for long COVID related symptom cluster: A scoping review and a checklist for decision rules

Butt, M.B. (2023) Just-in-time adaptive interventions for long COVID related symptom cluster: A scoping review and a checklist for decision rules.

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Full Text Status:Access to this publication is restricted
Embargo date:16 October 2025
Abstract:Background: Long COVID, a persistent condition arising after acute COVID-19, is currently researched in different ways. Just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) offer a potential self-management or treatment strategy via technological devices, though their scholarly examination lacks comprehensive review, particularly in the context of long COVID. Objective: This thesis aimed to examine the research status on JITAIs for selected long COVID symptoms, such as fatigue with bodily pain, cognitive problems, respiratory problems, and psychological problems (depression, anxiety, insomnia). The core elements of JITAI's tailoring variable, decision-making, context sensing, and monitoring and intervention options were examined. As a follow-up, the decision-making process should be elaborated and a checklist for JITAI development created. Method: A scoping review according to PRISMA guidelines was performed. The PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases were searched using a search string and predefined criteria such as language, date of publication, and availability in full text. A total of 288 studies were extracted into the software Rayyan and then screened. 51 full texts where screened. Eventually, 11 studies were included, evaluated according to the research questions, and tabulated. Results: Findings show that JITAIs are promising for managing long COVID symptoms like fatigue and psychological problems but lack coverage for cognitive and respiratory problems. The reviewed studies also vary widely in research methodology as well as methods used in their JITAIs. To address these gaps and differences, we propose a checklist to guide future JITAI development, aiming to improve both rigor and standardization. Conclusion: While JITAIs have shown promise as a new technology, it is not possible to say conclusively whether this form of intervention is suitable for long COVID. So far, the study situation appears to be insufficient, and further research is needed to address the current challenges. These include improving data collection mechanisms such as self reporting, careful documentation of decision-making processes, and methodological uniformity. To determine the extent to which respiratory and cognitive problems can be improved through the use of JITAIs, interventions need to be created and reviewed for this purpose.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:77 psychology
Programme:Psychology MSc (66604)
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