University of Twente Student Theses


Measuring Feelings of Anxiety and Depression in Daily Life – An Experience Sampling Study

Hoppe, Wiebke (2019) Measuring Feelings of Anxiety and Depression in Daily Life – An Experience Sampling Study.

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Abstract:Recently, the experience sampling method (ESM) has gained popularity in measuring affect as a momentary state. The current study aims to explore the convergent validity of state measures of anxiety and depression obtained by means of ESM with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a trait measure. Due to the ongoing debate on how strongly the two constructs are related, the relationship between anxiety and depression is investigated as well. State anxiety and depression were measured four times a day over one week via the TIIM smartphone application. The HADS was administered on the eighth day. The results suggested strong correlations between the state and trait variables and a high degree of fluctuation in momentary anxiety and depression. Strong associations between the means of state anxiety and depression per person were found, but not between the means per measurement point. The findings indicate substantial overlap between the state and trait measures of anxiety and depression, but also unexplained variance. Anxiety and depression appear to be related, but distinguishable from each other. State measures can be a relevant addition next to trait measures of feelings and the combination of both may provide a more complete picture of people’s affective experience.
Item Type:Essay (Bachelor)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:77 psychology
Programme:Psychology BSc (56604)
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