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Factors influencing adolescents’ uptake of and intention to receive the MenACWY-vaccination in the Netherlands: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Berg, T. van den (2019) Factors influencing adolescents’ uptake of and intention to receive the MenACWY-vaccination in the Netherlands: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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Abstract:Background: The incidence of meningococcal disease serogroup W in the Netherlands has been stable up to 2014; serogroup W has caused 4 cases of meningococcal disease on average per year. The incidence of serogroup W has been increasing; 9 cases in 2015, 50 cases and 7 deaths in 2016, 80 cases and 11 deaths in 2017, and 103 cases and 22 deaths in 2018. Serogroup W is becoming a threat to public health in the Netherlands; the in 2002 implemented MenC-vaccine (serogroup C) for children at the age of 14-months old was replaced with the MenACWY-vaccine (serogroup A, C, W, and Y) in the National Immunization Program in 2018. A catch-up campaign is initiated in 2018 to offer all adolescents born between 2001-2005 the MenACWY-vaccine in 2018-2019. The uptake of the MenACWY-vaccine among adolescents in the catch-up campaign in 2018 is 87%. Taking the severe consequences of meningococcal disease in mind, it is desired to reach an uptake as high as possible to induce herd immunity. Evidence is missing on factors that influence the uptake of and intention to receive the MenACWY-vaccine by adolescents. The research questions in this study: 1) ‘What factors influence adolescents’ uptake of and intention to receive the MenACWY-vaccine in the catch-up campaign in the Netherlands in 2018/2019?’. 2) ‘Where do adolescents look for information, how would adolescents like to receive information, and what information about vaccine-preventable diseases would adolescents like to receive?’. Methods: This study used a literature study and a questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model conducted among adolescents to determine the factors that influence the uptake of and intention to receive the MenACWY-vaccine and the preferences of adolescents in the provision of information. The response rate to the questionnaire was 48.7%, 242 responses were found eligible for analysis. Of the 127 adolescents that received an invitation to receive the MenACWY-vaccine; the uptake was 78.7%. Of the 139 adolescents that did not receive the MenACWY-vaccine, the mean intention to receive the MenACWY-vaccine was 2.63 (five-point Likert-scale: 0-4). SPSS was used to analyze the data. The association between the dependent and independent variables was tested using the ANOVA and Spearman-Correlation. Results: Adolescents that follow the ‘VWO’ educational level have the highest uptake of the MenACWY-vaccine followed by adolescents that follow ‘VMBO-T’ and ‘HAVO’. The intention to receive the MenACWY-vaccine is highest among unreligious adolescents and among adolescents whose parents belong to the ‘re-reformed’ religion. Adolescents whom themselves and their parents follow the ‘Islam’ religion have the lowest intention. Adolescents without migration background are associated with a higher uptake and intention. Adolescents who have more knowledge about meningococcal disease have a higher uptake and intention. Adolescents who perceive themselves susceptible to meningococcal disease have a higher uptake and intention. Adolescents who perceive meningococcal disease as severe have a higher uptake and intention. Adolescents who perceive more benefits from the MenACWY-vaccine and cues-to-action have a higher uptake and intention. Adolescents would look for information about vaccines on internet pages, through their parents/guardians, a doctor/nurse, or their friends. Adolescents would like to receive information through a folder/letter, their parents/guardians, a website, a doctor/nurse, and in class. Adolescents would like to receive the following information about vaccines: susceptibility to the Vaccine Preventable Disease (VPD), the risk on side-effect from the vaccine, the effectiveness of the vaccine in preventing VPDs, the content of a vaccine, the number of cases of the VPD, hospital admissions and deaths, and the experience of other adolescents with the vaccine. Conclusion: Adolescents’ uptake of and intention to receive the MenACWY-vaccine is associated with educational level, religion, migration background, knowledge about meningococcal disease, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and cues-to-action. Future implementation of adolescents’ MenACWY-vaccination should focus on three aspects: 1) the provision of information to increase the knowledge of adolescents and thus, increase the perceived susceptibility, severity, and benefits, 2) Research has to be done on the factors that influence the intention of parents to recommend the MenACWY-vaccine to their child, and 3) research has to be done on the influence of the adolescents’ educational level on the uptake of and intention to receive the MenACWY-vaccine.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:TNW: Science and Technology
Subject:70 social sciences in general
Programme:Health Sciences MSc (66851)
Link to this item:http://purl.utwente.nl/essays/78603
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