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De relatie tussen genderrollen, sociale cognities & onveilig seksueel gedrag

Dolstra, Niki (2006) De relatie tussen genderrollen, sociale cognities & onveilig seksueel gedrag.

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Abstract:Every year an estimated hundred thousand adolescents are infected with an STD. Thus, sexual education is still not very effective. Maybe there are other aspects which determine the sexual behaviour of an individual. An possible aspect was shown in a previous research (Boer, Rom & Fernández-Arata, 2006). This study has revealed the influence of gender roles on social cognitions and unsafe sexual behaviour among African adolescents. This research is one of the first studies which attempt to prove the influence of gender roles in Western society. The formulated definition of the problem in this study was the following: What is the relation between gender roles, social cognitions and unsafe sexual behaviour and which instrument is best for measuring the influence of gender roles concerning unsafe sexual behaviour among Dutch adolescents. The assumption in this study was that gender roles influence behaviour not only directly, but also indirectly through social variables and the intention to have safe sex. Gender roles can be described as accepted traditional behaviour, that is seen as typically male or female, according to cultural and social context. Because of the cultural factor, three different instruments from different cultures have been used. Besides the Hispanic Macho/ Marianismo scale, also the Western Hypermasculinity Inventory (HMI; Mosher & Sirkin, 1984) and the Hyper feminine scale (Murnen & Byrne, 1991) have been included. In this study a combination of social cognitions from the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT; Rogers, 1975) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1991), and social norms of the Prototype/ Willingness Model (PWM; Gibbons, Gerrard, Blanton & Russell,1998a) has been used for measuring the social variables. Results among 118 Dutch intermediate education students between 16 and 22 years old, have not shown an (in)direct influence of gender roles on the intention or the actual sexual behaviour. Social cognitions, attitudes and vulnerability on intention and subjective norms and self efficacy on sexual behaviour, have revealed a significance influence. Also the social norms of the PWM have a significant role in the willingness to have unsafe sex. Although the influence of gender roles has not been proven, correlations between gender roles and most of the social cognitions have been found. The short form of the Machismo/ Marianismo scale revealed the most correlations and seems to be the most effective scale to use in the Dutch situation, also because of the few items en the good scale reliability. Only one item has to be removed from the scale. Because of the small sample, further research has to be done to preclude the influence of gender roles on (the intention to have) safe sex.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:BMS: Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences
Subject:77 psychology
Programme:Psychology MSc (66604)
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