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Solar energy in Indonesia : an internship report on solar water heaters and sustainable energy technologies in the area of Bandung

Pegels, K.J.R. (2014) Solar energy in Indonesia : an internship report on solar water heaters and sustainable energy technologies in the area of Bandung.

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Abstract:This report gives the results which have been obtained during the four month long internship project. The project took place in the region of Bandung which lies in West Java in Indonesia. The project consisted of two separate parts. The main topic of both parts are solar water heaters. This summary will shortly describe the contents of the project and will give the results which have been obtained. In the first part of the project a model has been made of a solar water heater. The model is used to determine the area of the solar collector which is suitable for the project specific study case. The solar water heater which has been modelled is based on a solar water heater of which the performance characteristics were already determined. Also the solar water heater had two sources for heating up the water. Namely by the sun, as all solar water heaters do, but also by a built in oven to burn fuels which are locally available like wood or paper. The model has been made in the program MATLAB version R2013a. The outcome of the model is the temperature of the water inside of the solar water heater’s storage tank during five days of using the solar water heater. Furthermore the model also gives the amount of fuel which had to be burned in order to keep the water temperature inside of the storage tank above 37 ℃, which is the minimum water temperature for showering, when the amount of available solar energy is too low. The model needs different input data namely the solar irradiance of five consecutive days, the user profile of the consumer using the warm water from the solar water heater during that five days and the lower heating value of the fuels which had to be burned. To determine the solar collector area three scenarios have been created for the model. The three scenarios differed in the size of the solar collector area (1, 2 and 3 m^2), the available solar irradiance and the location where the solar water heater would be placed. The important benchmark of simulations was the minimum water temperature for taking a shower which was 37 ℃. The results of the solar water heater point out that the choice for a specific solar collector area size is not an exact science. A solar collector with a size of 2 m^2 is chosen for this project. With this collector size the frequency with which the water temperature is below the minimum water temperature is relatively low and the same holds for the fuel costs which are relatively low as well. For a collector size of 3 m^2 this would be even lower but it is assumed that this collector size will not be economically valuable. In the second part of the project a small research has been done in the village Banjaran and at the university Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN). In Banjaran a questionnaire has been done and a field inventory and at the UIN a questionnaire was done. In Banjaran the questionnaire was done to find out if there is any need for solar water heaters and what the people their knowledge is on sustainable energy technologies. The conclusion of the research is that there is no need for solar water heaters in Banjaran. The performance of a solar water heater is not in line with the yearly water use profile of the people in Banjaran. The technology is new to the people and also warm water is seen as a luxury instead of a necessity. Sustainable energy technologies are new to the people of Banjaran. Thinking about the source of the energy that they use and the effects by using these energy sources to the environment is not of a concern to them. The research done by the field inventory showed that solar water heaters can be produced in Banjaran by metal workshops. A price indication for the production costs has not been found. Therefor it cannot be said whether or not there is a business case for the production of solar water heaters in Banjaran. The production of solar water heaters can be done locally and also part of the materials can be bought locally as well. The goal of the questionnaire at the UIN was to find out if there is any knowledge on solar water heater technology and if there is any knowledge on sustainable energy technologies. A large part of the students at the UIN know what a solar water heater is. There seems to be a knowledge difference on solar water heater technology between the different faculties. The questionnaire did not point out what the students their knowledge on solar water heaters is because the questions in the questionnaire were not adequate. The questionnaire was not designed for students but for the people in the village Banjaran. This made the questionnaire inadequate.
Item Type:Internship Report (Master)
Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
Faculty:ET: Engineering Technology
Subject:52 mechanical engineering
Programme:Sustainable Energy Technology MSc (60443)
Keywords:Solar water heaters, Indonesia, research, simulation
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