University of Twente Student Theses


Opstellen handleiding voor het zelfstandig uitvoeren van een meting met Ground Penetrating Radar

Schakel, P.J. (2016) Opstellen handleiding voor het zelfstandig uitvoeren van een meting met Ground Penetrating Radar.

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Abstract:A large part of the utilities in the Netherlands is located below the surface. The main advantage of locating these utilities below the ground level is it limits the nuisance for above ground objects and persons. Disadvantage is it can be difficult to locate the exact location of these utilities. As a result of the high density of the subsurface utilities excavation works often result in damages to these utilities. One of the possibilities of locating underground infrastructure is the use of ground penetrating radar. GPR is a noninvasive method that uses electromagnetic waves for mapping subsurface utilities, which results in information about the underground infrastructure without the need for excavation works. However GPR is currently in the middle of its development, still facing a lot of challenges on the area of implementation. In literature little information is found on field surveys with a note that most literature is of an older age. The question rises if present literature describes a representative image of the current state of the art of GPR. An increasingly occurring phenomena is companies and individuals who independently perform GPR measurements. They are given a training in the use of the GPR after which they perform the measurements themselves. Result of performing independent measurements after basic training is it creates room for arbitrariness in the process. This arbitrariness and unmeant variance in measurements is the result of missing guidelines and can lead to inaccurate results. As a result of this ground penetrating radar is often viewed as an ‘unprofessional’ method. After a recent incident with excavation damage Liander, Netherlands largest utility owner, started in association with the University of Twente a project on professionalizing the use of ground penetrating radar. Part of this professionalizing is creating manuals to standardize GPR measurements. The goal of this research is creating a protocol in the form of a manual to standardize GPR measurements. For reaching this goal two manuals where developed. Manual A which gives information on the ground penetrating radar itself, its components and how to use the radar and Manual B, which gives an structured outline for performing an independent measurement with the radar. The information captured in these manuals is gathered through a literature study, experts on the area of ground penetrating radar and personal experience from performing independent measurements. First two concept manuals where drafted which thereafter where improved by revision by experts and a field-test performed by the author. The accumulated feedback is reviewed and processed for two final manuals. The literature review, added with knowledge of experts and personal experience lead to the conclusion that the current state of the art of the literature on ground penetrating radar is outdated. It does not give a representative image of the technology anymore. Most of the constraints identified in the literature are not a problem anymore, and the settings are not of an issue for the users as they were kept in the standard settings for this research. The company developing the radar, GT Frontline, has optimized the settings for its purpose. As a result some constraints found in the literature review are outdated with the state of the art GPRs. An overview of outdated constraints of the GPR is given in Chapter 11.
Item Type:Essay (Bachelor)
Faculty:ET: Engineering Technology
Subject:56 civil engineering
Programme:Civil Engineering BSc (56952)
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