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Investigating the occurrence of slum gentrification: a case study of Kibera slum upgrading project, Kenya

Mkoli, Rahma Mwakisingo (2020) Investigating the occurrence of slum gentrification: a case study of Kibera slum upgrading project, Kenya.

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Abstract:Rapid urbanization rates have led to an increase in slum growth in major urban cities in the global south. This has led to a majority of the countries in the Global South to adopt various slum upgrading approaches. Some slum upgrading approaches can result in rent hikes and with no changes in employment opportunities and monthly income, low-income households sell or rent their housing units due to the unaffordability of the upgraded units. This results in their indirect displacement hence leading to slum gentrification. Studies have been conducted highlighting approaches that have led to slum gentrification occurring. This study sought to investigate the occurrence of slum gentrification as a result of the slum upgrading project in Kibera Soweto East Zone A, Nairobi, Kenya. A case-study approach was followed using qualitative and quantitative methods to understand the slum upgrading approach used and the socio-economic changes experienced by the Kibera Soweto East Zone A residents. Interviews were conducted with experts involved in the slum upgrading programme and household surveys were carried out on the Kibera Soweto East Zone A residents residing at the upgraded units and the decanting site. While the primary data in form of household survey provided the socio-economic backgrounds of the residents and their eligibility status, secondary data such as the slum upgrading approach used backed up information supplied by experts while literature provided the indicators for slum gentrification. Identifying indicators of slum gentrification is crucial in ensuring that the slum upgrading projects benefit the primary beneficiaries of the projects and not newcomers. The study compared the socio-economic status of both the residents at the decanting and upgraded site, service delivery and used the indicators identified to determine if slum gentrification has occurred. The study found out that the slum upgrading approach carried out by the Kenyan Government resulted in slum gentrification, first due to the down payment the residents had to make before they were allocated a unit and secondly due to the amount of mortgage they have to pay per month. This resulted in the Kibera Soweto East Zone A residents at both at the upgraded site and decanting site to rent out their units, hence being indirectly displaced. The study also found out that there have been changes in the socio-economic conditions of the Kibera Soweto East Zone A residents both at the upgraded site and decanting site. These changes were determined as contributors of slum gentrification.
Item Type:Essay (Master)
Faculty:ITC: Faculty of Geo-information Science and Earth Observation
Programme:Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation MSc (75014)
Link to this item:https://purl.utwente.nl/essays/85191
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